Horizontal communication communication that takes

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Introduction to Health Care
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 9
Introduction to Health Care
Haroun/Mitchell
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horizontal communication Communication that takes place between and among people at the same level. Some time ago, organizations began to use communication from all three directions in the area of performance appraisal. Almost all Fortune 500 companies use 360­degree multi­rater feedback to evaluate senior managers. Such feedback includes performance appraisals from peers (horizontal communication), subordinates (upward communication), and superiors (downward communication). Evaluations from customers/clients, and suppliers are also sought in some cases. There are, however, some problems with 360­degree feedback. One problem with subordinates evaluating superiors is that retaliation for negative performance evaluations can occur. Another problem is that peers may be politically motivated to either overrate or underrate their co­workers. Thus, it is usually recommended that upward and horizontal appraisals be used only for training and development purposes and that the superiors' evaluation be given more weight when appraisals are used to make personnel decisions (such as those involving promotions and pay raises). However, if superiors do take their own 360­degree feedback seriously, and change their behavior as a result of feedback from subordinates and peers, the loyalty of subordinates will also increase. Interpersonal Communication We now move from the organizational level to the interpersonal level of communication. Interpersonal communication involves a direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants. Interpersonal communication can take many forms, both formal and informal, and be channeled through numerous media and technologies. Furthermore, people can communicate without even intending to do so, through nonverbal communication. In this section, we discuss each of these issues: formal versus informal communication, communication media, technology, and nonverbal communication. interpersonal communication Direct verbal or nonverbal interaction between two or more active participants. Formal versus Informal Communication [876] [877] [878] [879] [880] [881] [882] Enjoy Safari? Subscribe Today
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Introduction to Health Care
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Chapter 16 / Exercise 9
Introduction to Health Care
Haroun/Mitchell
Expert Verified
3/29/2017 9. Communication ­ Organizational Behavior, Third Edition 8/27 Formal versus Informal Communication Interpersonal communication can be formal or informal. Formal communication follows the formal structure of the organization (e.g., superior to subordinate) and entails organizationally sanctioned information. A major drawback of formal communication is that it can be slow. In contrast, informal communication involves spontaneous interaction between two or more people outside the formal organization structure. For example, communication between peers on their coffee break may be considered informal communication.

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