O what do these characteristics reveal about the

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oWhat do these characteristics reveal about the complexity of speech perception?Word Boundaries. Have you ever heard a conversation in an unfamiliar language? oThe words may seem to run together in a continuous stream, with no boundaries of silence to separate them. You may think that the boundaries between words seem much more distinct in English—almost as clear-cut as the white spaces that identify the boundaries between any two adjacent words in this textbook. othe actual acoustical stimulus of spoken language shows no clear-cut pauses to mark the boundaries. oAn actual physical event—such as a pause—marks a word boundary less than 40% of the timeoWe are rarely conscious that it is difficult to resolve word boundaries. The research shows that our speech recognition system initially considers several different hypotheses about how to divide a phrase into words. This system immediately and effortlessly uses our knowledge about language in order to place the boundaries in appropriate locations this knowledge usually leads us to the correct conclusions. Variability in Phoneme Pronunciation. oPhoneme perception is not that easy. oEx.speakers vary tremendously in the pitch and tone of their voices, as well as their rate of producing phonemes A second source of variabilityis that speakers often fail to produce phonemes in a precise fashionA third source of variabilityis called coarticulation
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oWhen you are pronouncing a particular phoneme, your mouth remains in somewhat the same shapeit was when you pronounced the previous phoneme; in addition, your mouth is preparing to pronounce the next phoneme. As a result, the phoneme you produce varies slightly from time to time, depending upon the surrounding phonemes oEx.the d in idle sounds different from the d in don’t. oDespite this variability in phoneme pronunciation, we still manage to understand the speaker’s intended phoneme. Factors such as context and visual cueshelp us achieve this goal. Context and Speech Perception. oInstead of passively receiving speech sounds, we can use context as a cue to help us figure out a sound or a word Top-down factors also influence speech perception because we use our vast knowledge about language to help us perceive ambiguous words. Ex.when you are listening to your professors’ lectures, extraneous noises will sometimes mask a phoneme.oPeople knock books off desks, cough, turn pages, and whisper. oStill, without much effort, you can usually reconstruct the missing sound. People show phonemic restoration: They can fill in a missing phoneme, using contextual meaning as a cue Ex.Warren and Warren (1970) showed that people are skilled at using the meaning of a sentence to select the correct word from several options. oThey played tape recordings of several sentences for their research participants: o1. It was found that the*eel was on the axle. o2. It was found that the*eel was on the shoe. o3. It was found that the*eel was on the orange. oThe researchers inserted a coughing sound in the location indicated by the asterisk.

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