oWhen you are pronouncing a particular phoneme, your mouth remains in somewhat the same shapeit was when you pronounced the previous phoneme; in addition, your mouth is preparing to pronounce the next phoneme. As a result, the phoneme you produce varies slightly from time to time, depending upon the surrounding phonemes oEx.the d in idle sounds different from the d in don’t. oDespite this variability in phoneme pronunciation, we still manage to understand the speaker’s intended phoneme. Factors such as context and visual cueshelp us achieve this goal. Context and Speech Perception. oInstead of passively receiving speech sounds, we can use context as a cue to help us figure out a sound or a word Top-down factors also influence speech perception because we use our vast knowledge about language to help us perceive ambiguous words. Ex.when you are listening to your professors’ lectures, extraneous noises will sometimes mask a phoneme.oPeople knock books off desks, cough, turn pages, and whisper. oStill, without much effort, you can usually reconstruct the missing sound. People show phonemic restoration: They can fill in a missing phoneme, using contextual meaning as a cue Ex.Warren and Warren (1970) showed that people are skilled at using the meaning of a sentence to select the correct word from several options. oThey played tape recordings of several sentences for their research participants: o1. It was found that the*eel was on the axle. o2. It was found that the*eel was on the shoe. o3. It was found that the*eel was on the orange. oThe researchers inserted a coughing sound in the location indicated by the asterisk.