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-When the CSU’s tried to branch out into research, the UC’s got upset that they wereencroaching on their “territory” and so the division was institutionally shaped by that conflictwhich resulted in autonomy for CSU’s, “BUT, the primary responsibility for graduate training &research remains in the UCs — and each tier’s missions are law”o Case study: adoption of diversity initiatives in U.S. organizations– What major theories of why organizations adopt or do not adopt diversity initiatives doDobbin, Kim & Kalev test?●4 major theories:8
●°– How do they operationalize these variables?°“Rational adaptation thesis°Functional need: % of non-managerial workers who are white women or Black/Hispanic/Asianwomen or men.°Power/internal advocacy°Internal advocacy: % of managers who are white women.°Corporate culture Corporate culture:°- top management support for work-family programs, based on a survey question (subjective) -work-family index: objective presence of various work-family programs - personnelformalization index: objective presence of certain formal bureaucratic procedures°External pressure from peers°Program prevalence in industry: based on census industry classifications, subtracting the focalorganization itself.°External pressure from regulators°Regulatory pressure:°- # of lawsuits a firm has faced under Title VII of Civil Rights Act - whether a firm is subject tooversight by the DoL’s Federal Contract Compliance Programs (is a federal contractor) - whethera firm has been subject to an actual federal contractor compliance review”°°– What results did their data indicate with respect to these theories?○Program prevalencein industry has a very significantpositive effect.○Corporate culturehas a lesser but significant positive effect.○Internal advocacyhas a still lesser but still significant positive effect.○Functional need(absence of diversity in non-managerial ranks) plays at best a minor role■an absence of white women in non-managerial ranks was associated with a greater chance fordiversity training for managers9
■a prevalence of Hispanic men was associated with a greater chance of general diversity training■a prevalence of Asian men was associated with diversity taskforces and mentoring adoption○Regulatory pressureplayed virtually no roleat all in diversity program adoption, positive ornegative°°– How does an institutionalist perspective help explain their findings?○With respect to promoting diversity, organizational behavior is shaped by organizations’interdependence within a field—specifically, a field that includes industry peers. Action isoriented not according to “need”, but according to what has legitimacy with peers. (peerpressure)■(Same with chain organizations deciding whether to own/operate expansion locations directly, orto franchise) ■Organizations don’t necessarily do what they need to do!