Reinforcer any event that increases the likelihood of

This preview shows page 15 - 18 out of 59 pages.

reinforcer: any event that increases the likelihood of a response ° punishment: any event that decreases the likelihood of a response ° discrimination: when a stimulus comes to signal that a certain response is likely to be followed by a particular consequence rat presses bar and food pellet goes into the food tray ° extinction: learned response is weakened when reinforcers that traditionally follow a response is removed ° generalization: where a response is made to a new stimulus that differs from but is similar to the stimulus present during learning ° observational learning: live or symbolic observation; person learns by viewing behavior ° shaping: incremental improvements toward a desired behavior – shaping by approximations ° ° CH.4 ° Research, its Roles, and Methods ° -the aim of science and the role of observation and measurement ° -reliability and validity of research results ° -the case study, correlational methods, the experiment and single-case ° research designs ° -cross-sectional, longitudinal, and accelerated longitudinal designs ° -qualitative research ° -ethical issues in research ° ° Evidence Based Practice (EBP)
Image of page 15

Subscribe to view the full document.

° began with medicine ° -the term evidence based medicine was introduced in 1992 the idea was to shift clinical decision making from “intuition” to clinically relevant research ° Archie Cochrane (1972) pointed out the importance of properly testing the effectiveness of healthcare strategies ° as recently as 2010, it was still viewed by many as a “new” approach indicating the level of inertia in profession practice ° other allied health professions have also indicated that they have adopted this method including psychology, social work, nursing, dentistry, speech pathology, etc. ° The American Psychological Association “says” it supports evidence based practice ° -however, they accredit programs that used psychodynamic therapy ° -the 2 most commonly used assessment methods in the US are Rorschach and the TAT ° ° EBP ° -questioning approach to practice leading to scientific experimentation ° -meticulous observation, enumeration and analysis replacing anecdotal case description ° -recording and cataloging evidence for systematic retrieval ° -development of questions using research based evidence ° -determining the level and type of evidence to be used ° -assessment of effectiveness after task completion ° -best available or preponderance of evidence should guide decisions ° -if a therapy has been found to be effective in 2 or more settings, it is considered efficacious ° -not all psychologists get training in evidence based practice ° -thus they may believe they are using the most efficacious methods when in fact they are not ° -the public may not be aware of evidence based practice ° -often evidence may be incomplete °
Image of page 16
° factors to consider ° -quality of research design ° -theoretical background ° -evidence of possible harm ° -general acceptance ° -description of procedure in a journal article or manual ° °
Image of page 17

Subscribe to view the full document.

Image of page 18
  • Spring '13
  • ADVOKAT
  • Psychology, Social anxiety disorder

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern