Guaranteed womens rights and the law establishing the

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guaranteed women’s rights and the law establishing the district assemblies, the decentralized units of local government that provided that a certain percentage of the members should be women, also reinforced the state’s progressive image” (Manuh, 130). Ghana experienced governmental democratization in the 1990s. The Ghanaian branch of the International Federation of Women Lawyers called The Ghana Association for the Welfare of Women and FIDA was responsible for Criminal Code modifications such as the elimination of “such as cruel widowhood rites and female circumcision and the practice of ritual servitude or trokosi …under which females are sent to live and work at shrines for life to atone for crimes committed by other members of their families” (Manuh, 132). Coalitions also formed at the turn of the century to put a stop to domestic violence. In response to a number of female murders, the Sister’s Keeper coalition curbed the problem from 2000 to 2001. Other coalitions also came about: Network for Women’s Rights (NETRIGHT) in 1999, Gender Violence survivors’ Support Network, (GVSSN) in 2001, National Coalition on Domestic Violence Legislation in 2003, and The Coalition on the Women’s Manifesto for Ghana in 2003 and 2004. 12
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Hussaina J. Abdullah discusses Nongovernmental Organization (NGO) movements which were motivated by the UN Decade for Women in his article, “Women as Emergent Actors: A Survey of New Women’s Organizations in Nigeria since the 1990s.” Women in Nigeria (WIN) was the country’s first feminist organization, which “was formed to fill what were considered to be serious gaps in the theory and practice of women’s liberation in Nigeria. It sought to challenge the dismissiveness and complacency of leftist academics and the ineffectiveness of existing women’s organization” (Abdullah, 152). In 1992, women founded the Women’s Health Organization of Nigeria (WHON) which advocated for women’s reproductive rights and provided education for women to become birth attendants. Other NGO movements included the Community Life Project in 1992, Gender and Development Action (GADA) in 1994 for gender equality in politics and public life, and the Women Empowerment Movement (WEM) in 1995. Abdullah remarks, “Women’s organizations stopped organizing for an improvement in their status and started organizing and demanding total transformation of the existing unequal gender relations“ (165). Wang 13
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Although these feminist movements have not yet brought gender equality into African cinema, female filmmakers are slowly but surely coming about. Tsitsi Dangarembga's Everyone's Child (Zimbabwe, 1996) tells the story of a young girl and her siblings who become orphans after their parents die from AIDS. In desperate need for food and money after her brother, Itai, becomes a gangster on the streets, Tamari prostitutes herself to the owner of the local grocery store. Although at the end of the film she is recued by the boy she is in love with when the grocery store owner forces her to go to a club with him, she returns home to find that her house has burned down and her younger brother has died.
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