Self fulfilling prophecy occurs when the labeled person begins to behave in

Self fulfilling prophecy occurs when the labeled

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Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when the labeled person begins to behave in such a way that perpetuates the deviant behavior oHow we think of ourselves and how others view us can influence our propensity for committing crime Labeling Theory – no act is intrinsically deviant one must be labeled as deviant to be deviant Critics of the labeling theory have tried to argue that certain acts such as murder, rape, and robbery are consistently prohibited across all culturesoThis is very incorrect – even within our own culture killing is not always regarded as murder – in times of war, killing the enemy is approved – or when someone kills because of self defense Although the labeling theory can be criticized on other groundsoActive process of labeling – theorist neglect the process that lead an act to be defined as deviant oLabeling certain activities as deviant is not completely arbitrary – differences in socialization, attitudes, and opportunities influence how far people engage in behaviorlikely to be labeled deviant Children from deprived backgrounds are more likely to steal from shops than richer childrenIt is not labeling that leads people to deviant acts as it is backgroundoUnclear whether labeling actually does have the effect of increasing deviant conduct Functionalist Theories
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See crime and deviance resulting from structural tensions and a lack of moral regulation withinsocietyIf aspirations held by individuals and groups in society do not coincide with available rewards, this disparity between desires and fulfillment will lead to deviant behaviorAnomie – a concept first brought into wide usage in sociology by Durkheim, referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior oNo clear standards to guide behavior in a given area of social lifeDurkheim believed people feel disoriented and anxious – one of the social factors influencing dispositions to suicide Durkheim—saw crime and deviance as social factors – inevitable and necessary elements in modern society oNonconformity is inevitable because there is more room for individual choice Durkheim—deviance fulfills two important functions oAdaptive – introduces new ideas and challenges into society (innovative force)oPromotes boundary maintenance – good and bad behaviors in society Deviance contributes to the stability of society Kingsley Davis – prostitution theory – brings stability of family to society Robert Merton – located the source of crime in deviance oModified the concept if anomie to refer to the strain put on individuals’ behavior when accepted norms conflict with social reality oIn American societies and other industrial societies general values emphasized material success and to achieve this success you have to have self-discipline and hard work People who work hard can achieve anything no matter their starting point in life
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