Most of this debate focused on Congress’s authority to impose a “restriction” on a new state. And
whether new states must be admitted on “equal footing” with existing states.
would be admitted to the union as a slave state, but would be balanced by the admission
of Maine, a free state, that had long wanted to be separated from Massachusetts.
Slavery was to be excluded from all new states in the Louisiana Purchase north of the southern
Jefferson’s Embargo Act
Congress passed, at the urging of President Jackson, the embargo acts, which barred all foreign
The Jeffersonians hoped the embargo acts would keep the United States out of the ongoing war
between England and France.
See United States v the William and Gibbons v. Ogden
Speech on Foreign Relations
Josiah Quincy (Federalist)
He was at the center of the opposition to the Jeffersonian embargo.
He points out the embargo’s effects on the merchants and shippers of New England and its
“Regulation cannot mean annihilation and that what is annihilated cannot be regulated”
House Report on Internal Improvements
The House appointed a committee to respond to Madison’s veto of the internal improvements bill.
by Henry Tucker who allied himself with Henry Clay, John Calhoun who were
willing to take a more vigorous view of federal power and what was necessary to avoid a repeat
of the indignities that had befallen the US in the War of 1812
Proponents insisted that such policies were necessary given the congressional power to raise
armies and regulate interstate commerce.
National Republicans argued for a broad construction of constitutional provisions which would
give Congress the power to build roads and canals in existing states.
Old Republicans argued for a strict construction of the enumerated powers, which made internal
improvements difficult to justify.
Views of the President of the United States on the Subject of Internal Improvements