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Facts about specific phobias have a one year

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Facts About Specific Phobias Have a one-year prevalence of ~7%, and a lifetime prevalence of ~9% in the U.S. Mean duration of a specific phobia is about 20 yrs. Females > Males:  2:1 to 3:1 ratio  Most specific phobia sufferers have multiple fears Types of Specific Phobias Animal type  Natural environment type (i.e. storms, heights, water)  Situation type (i.e. claustrophobia, tunnels, bridges, flying, driving)  Bodily reactions (vomiting, headache, fever Blood-injury-injection type ( vasovagal reaction ) Nature of phobic stimuli undercuts a straightforward conditioning view of specific  phobia
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Treatments for Specific Phobias All treatments are complicated by avoidance behavior Anxiolytic or antidepressant medication (preferably, an SSRI) Systematic desensitization In vivo  desensitization – effective, but low treatment acceptance and high therapy  dropout rates Applied tension  for blood-injection phobias Experimental: VR therapy for flying and height phobias Self-help groups Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Debilitating,  unwanted ( ego-dystonic ): obsessions (intrusive thoughts, impulses, images) compulsions (repetitive behavior to ward off anxiety or an unwanted impulse) Recognition that one’s obsessions and compulsions are excessive or unreasonable Significant distress or impairment for over one hour per day. Facts About OCD One-year prevalence ~ 2% About 80% of OCD sufferers have coexisting Major Depression. ½ of OCD cases begin in childhood, and these childhood cases are mostly males and  are more severe. OCD cases beginning in adolescence or adulthood are less severe, and females = males  in prevalence. 20% of OCD cases have 1 st -degree relatives with OCD. Patient with OCD Severe OCD
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Basal Ganglia Basal Ganglia and Frontal Cortex Frontal Cortex and OCD Common Obsessions and Compulsions in OCD Obsessions          Compulsions %    Multiple obsessions             60 Multiple compulsions 48 Contamination                45 Checking 63 Excessive doubt         42 Washing 50 Somatic         36 Counting 36 Need for symmetry or exactness 31 Need to ask or confess 31 Fear of causing harm to      28 Arranging/organizing 28   self or others Collecting/Hoarding 18 Fear of being sex. inappropriate   26 Other (praying, repeating words) 13    Disorders Related to OCD: “OCD-Spectrum Disorders” Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome Anxiety Tics Coprolalia Trichotillomania Onychophagia (severe, chronic nail-biting) Hypochondriasis
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Bulimia nervosa, Anorexia Nervosa Body Dysmorphic Disorder obsessive concern about appearance and body parts (usually skin, hair, nose) and 
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Facts About Specific Phobias Have a one year prevalence of...

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