exam-2013-spring-2-answers

Which one of the following statements is true a

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11. Which one of the following statements is TRUE ? A. Synthetic compounds, but not naturally-occurring compounds, can cause cancer. B. Many compounds (more than 2000) have conclusively been shown to be carcinogenic in humans. C. Direct acting carcinogens are ultimate carcinogens. D. All tissues are equally susceptible to those carcinogens that require metabolic activation. E. Benzo[ a ]pyrene is an ultimate carcinogen. 12. Which one of the following statements is FALSE ? 13. List FOUR of the SIX different categories or types of antineoplastic drugs, give an example of each and briefly explain (in 1-2 sentences) how each acts as an anti-cancer drug. ( 4 marks ). See Antineoplastic drugs lecture Alkylating and DNA binding agents Antimetabolites Antibiotics Natural plant derivatives Miscellaneous Hormones
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14. Patients suffering from Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) lack the enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphorybosyltransferase (HGPRT) resulting in high levels of uric acid in body fluids and thus ultimately to gout and kidney problems. This is an example of an inborn error of metabolism. Why is LNS not a pharmacogenetic defect? ( 1 mark ) Pharmacogenetic defects are only seen in response to administration of a drug - they are not evident in absence of drug challenge. This is not the case with LNS or with other inborn errors of metabolism which show clinical manifestations in the absence of any drug exposure. 15. You are a physician who has just seen a 4 year-old patient who weighs 20 kg. You want to prescribe him a drug that is prescribed at a dose of 10 mg per day to adults. How much do you prescribe your patient according to the following (and show your reasoning)? ( 2 marks) ? According to the Body Surface Rule the child should receive 1.5 X weight in kg (20) + 10 = 40%, therefore 4 mg/day According to Young’s Rule the child should receive Age/(Age +12) = 4/16 = 25%, therefore 2.5 mg/day 16. Briefly explain the interaction that can occur at the kidney between the antibiotic penicillin and probenecid, a drug used to treat gout. What is the effect of probenecid on penicillin half-life? ( 1 mark ) The two drugs compete for tubular secretion in the kidney. Probenecid has been used to increase penicillin half-life . 17 . Fill in the blanks ( 1 mark ). Disulfuram (Antabuse) is one of a few FDA-approved drugs for the treatment of alcoholism. It acts by inhibiting the enzyme _ aldehyde dehydrogenase __ leading to an accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood, which makes the patient flush and vomit. 18. If you give a patient a β -blocker like propranolol, which acts to decrease cardiac output, what effect do you think it might have on the half-lives of drugs that are extensively metabolized by the liver ( 0.5 marks )?
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