32 ful fi lling human needs in an equitable way

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3.2 Ful fi lling Human Needs in an Equitable Way Social thresholds are even more dif fi cult to de fi ne than the environmental thresh- olds. Our conceptions of a good life vary, and our expectations in life vary around the world and over time. Inspired by the millennium development goals and the discussions that eventually led to the SDGs, Kate Raworth discussed what she calls the social foundations of human well-being (Raworth 2012 ). Raworth created a framework that describes how humanity has to prepare to live within a doughnut-shaped space that she refers to as an environmentally safe and socially just operating space (see Fig. 7 ). The planetary boundaries concept is commonly expressed as a circle (Steffen et al. 2015 ), where the normalised radius decides the pressure on the earth s car- rying capacity for the different planetary boundaries. The outside arrows in Fig. 7 represent how the need to stay within the planetary boundaries pushes the outer circle inwards we need to stay within a certain radius fi guratively speaking. The demands for food, water, energy and other elements that make up the social foundation are represented by the inner circle in Fig. 7 , and it is constantly pushed outwards by the growing demands of the earth s population. The safe and just space for humanity, hence, has boundaries both in terms of an environmental ceiling and in terms of a social foundation. This means that beyond the planetary boundaries, in the outer layer of the doughnut-shaped space , we face environmental degradation which endangers humanity and below the social boundary, which is the inner layer of the doughnut-shaped space , we face deprivations that risk human well-being. Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion 21
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3.2.1 The Clothing Sector s Contribution to Human Needs In terms of the ability of the clothing sector to ful fi l the basic human needs, it is clear that clothes are an absolute necessity for survival. There are many different descrip- tions of what basic human needs are, but to select one that is often referred to in discussions on sustainable development, we begin with the framework on human-scale development presented by Manfred Max-Neef as early as 1987 (Boulanger et al. 2010 ). According to Max-Neef, there are nine basic human needs that are universal that are not changing over time and where one cannot replace the other. These are subsistence, protection, affection, understanding, participation, lei- sure, creation, identity and freedom. Max-Neef claims that all cultures make dif- ferent efforts to address all of these needs but that they do it in very different ways. In Western society where consumerism is a strong characteristic of the culture, con- sumption of material goods is equated with needs ful fi lment. When looking into the needs as expressed by Max-Neef, however, it soon becomes obvious that very few of them are directly connected to material goods. In fact, subsistence is the only one with a very strong connection food, water, clothes, etc., are needed for survival.
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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