That way you’ll receive your refund earlier and can invest it, or at least draw interest on
it, as soon as possible.
SHOULD implies that nothing has happened yet but that something should happen;
this generally means an argument because they are saying you SHOULD do
The only way to keep textbooks affordable is to buy only used textbooks and sell your
texts back after each course.
Assertion (this is not obviously true, therefore we would need reasons/premises to be
persuaded to believe it to make it an argument).
I’m tired of being regarded as prejudiced because I do not approve of homosexuality.
All my life I have been taught to believe that homosexuality is a sin.
The vast majority of people believe the same.
Morality does not change; that is
one of the defining attributes of God.
Any intimate physical activity between two
people who are unmarried is wrong.
(Letter to Editor, from Johnson & Blair,
Argument (conclusion: homosexuality is wrong)
There are 5 premises in this argument; whether they are flamingly false or true, they
are still premises, making this into an argument.
When we’re asleep, we have no control over our mental processes.
dreaming, we aren’t attentive, focused, or logical.
Nor can we evaluate our
impressions and feelings or verify them with other people.
That’s why dreaming
is incompatible with knowledge.
As entrancing and moving as many dreams
are, they are thoroughly unreliable.
(Adapted from Govier, “What’s in a
Argument (conclusion: dreams are incompatible with knowledge)
It is difficult to understand your dreams; it is next to impossible to learn anything at all
from them if you approach them with scorn and derision.
treated with respect, openness, and appreciation, they may reveal their secrets to you.
Dreams offer a deep source of wisdom to those willing to listen.
Listening means, among other things, letting go of logic and reason and letting in feelings
(Sarah Shadowitz, in response to Govier’s “What’s in a
There are no reasons given to back those statements up, therefore they do not create
11. In the Meno, a Platonic dialogue, Socrates persistently questions a young slave about his
knowledge of geometry.
At first the slave appears quite knowledgeable, readily asserting
that a square composed of sides two feet in length contains four square feet.
But when, in
response to a problem posed by Socrates, the slave indicates that a figure of eight square
feet contains sides four feet long, Socrates demonstrates that the boy is thoroughly