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Osteologists can estimate approximate age of death of

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Osteologists can estimate approximate age of death of an individual by examining the extentof suture closure in the skullo8.2d Orbital and Nasal Complexes, Paranasal SinusesBony cavities called orbits enclose the eyes and the muscles that move them
Orbital complex consists of multiple bones that form each orbitNasal complex is composed of bones and cartilage that enclose the nasal cavity and theparanasal sinusesThe ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary, and sphenoidal sinuses are air-filled chambers that openinto the nasal cavities are called paranasal sinusesSinuses have mucous membrane lining that helps to humidify and warm inhaled airSinus spaces cause the skull bones in which they are located in to be lighter and also providemore resonance to the voice8.3 Bones Associated with the SkulloAuditory ossicles are three tiny ear bones housed within the petrous part of each temporal boneoThese bones are the mallus, the incus, and the stapesoHyoid bone is a slender, curved bone located inferior to the skull between the mandible and thelarynxoDoes not articulate with any other bone in the skeletonoHas a medial body and two paired hornlike processes, the greater cornua and the lesser cornuaoThe cornua and body serve as attachment sites for tongue and larynx muscles and ligaments8.4 Sex and Age DeterminationSkull can provide insight about the age and sex of an indiviualo8.4a Sex Differences in the SkullMale and female skulls display some obvious differences in general shape and size, aphenomenon known as sexual dimorphismTypical female features tend to be gracile (delicate, small) whereas male features tend to bemore robust (larger, sturdier, bulkier)Both skeletons and skeletal features vary in their general size and robusticity amongpopulationsOften difficult or impossible to determine the sex of infant and juvenile remains becauseskull characteristics appear female like until well after pubertyMost accurate way to determine sex is to look at multiple skeletal features and make ajudgement based on the majority of features presento8.4b Aging of the SkullShape and structure of cranial element differ between infants and adultsMost significant growth in the skull occurs before age 5, when the brain is still growing andexerting pressure against the developing skullbone’s internal surfaceBrain growth is 90-95% complete by age 5, at which tie cranial bone growth is close tocompletion and the cranial sutures are almost fully developedSkull grows at a much faster rate than does the rest of the bodyInfants cranial bones are not yet large enough to surround the brain completely, so somecranial bones are interconnected by flexible areas of dense regular connective tissuemembrane in regions called fontanellesFontanelles are sometimes referred to as the “soft spots” ona baby’s headThey enable some flexon in the bony plates within the skull during birth

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Term
Fall
Professor
Walker
Tags
Vertebra, Occipital bone

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