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beauties of an ancient culture based on courtesy and fraternity. As an example that such a marriage between past and present was possible, Cesaire, suggests, "we can look to the Soviet Union" (p. 52). But, as history has shown, the Soviet model, for whatever reasons, was doomed to failure and has since been relegated to the dustbin of history. Nevertheless, Cesaire was right in insisting that colonized peoples had great civilizations, reminiscent of Mazrui's Romantic Gloriana- empires, kingdoms; large, elaborate, well organized bureaucracies. And to buttress his point, Cesaire quotes Frobenius: "Civilized to the marrow of their bones! The idea of a barbaric Negro is a European invention" (p. 53). The entire gamut of European elites, Cesaire argues - from journalists, to sociologists, theologians and academics - share responsibility for the crime of colonialism. All who supported the plundering activities of colonialism deserved condemnation as "inventors of subterfuges, . . . charlatans and tricksters, . . . dealers in gobbledygook" (p. 55). He cites for special mention writers like Gourou, who claims that civilization is only found in the temperate zones, that the tropical zones never had civilizations; of men like the Belgian missionary Reverend Temple, whose book Bantu Philosophypurported to counteract the forces of "communistic materialism" and save the Negroes from being turned by that devilish ideology into "moral vagabonds." He cites as extremely ridiculous Rev. Temple's claim that the Negro was not interested in material progress, that all he needed was to be respected as a human being, and that when he came into contact with the European, the Negro "integrated us into their hierarchy of life forces at a very high level" (p. 59). Even more absurd, Cesaire argues, are claims by M. Mannoni that colonialism was a divinely ordained mission of the West, and that all the Madagascan craved was to be able to depend on somebody else: “He desires neither personal autonomy nor free responsibility" (p. 61). Point to the fact that the Madagascans had a history of revolt against French occupation, and Mannoni would tell you that was simply the expression of neurotic behavior. Raise any objection to colonialism, Cesaire says, and M. Mannoni, "who has an answer for everything", would come up with a fitting response and justification in favor of the superior civilization. It is evident, Cesaire argues, that all such pronouncements are the marks of little and chauvinistic minds that are unable to appreciate the universal reality that all men are endowed with reason.
Colonialism - French colonialism in particular - Cesaire argues, could only contemplate the idea of other cultures being integrated into the French family. The idea of France being integrated into other families was too monstrous to imagine, because a superior civilization cannot possibly be integrated into an inferior civilization. That would be contrary to all logic. We could have a Negro Frenchman, but never a White Negro. The very idea was an oxymoron. But colonialism's civilizing mission, with all its Hitlerian undertones, was simply, Cesaire suggests, the parting whimpers of a dying civilization, a dying class, for "it is an implacable law that every decadent class finds itself turned into a receptacle into which flows all the dirty waters of history; that it is