3. Sweat duct – the passage way. 4. Sweat glands – the producers of sweat. Fundamental Layers of the Friction Skin 1. Epidermis – the outermost layer a. Stratum Corneum, b. Stratum mucosum 2. Dermis – the inner layer containing the blood vessel, dermal papillae, various glands and nerves. Ridge Formation – (Ridges starts to form in the fingers and thumb during the 3 rd to 4 th months of the fetus life.) Dermal Papillae = are irregular pegs composed of delicate connective tissue protruding and forming the ridges of the skin on the fingers, palms, toes and soles of the feet. Ridge Destruction – destruction of the friction skin can either be temporary or permanent. Generally temporary destruction occur when only the epidermis layer of the friction skin has been damage, while permanent damage can be injected to the friction skin due to damage to the dermis layer. General Rules on Ridge Destruction
a. Destruction of the Epidermis – temporary, dermis – permanent damage. b. Cut == a depth of more than 1 mm will constitute permanent scar. The Fingerprint Patterns 1. The Arch (5%) a. Plain Arch (A) – is a pattern in which the ridges flows from one side to the other side with a slight raise at the center. b. Tented Arch (T) – is a type of pattern having either an angle, uptrust or an incomplete loop form. 2. The Loop (60%) Elements of loop 1. A core 3. A sufficient Recurve 2. A delta 4. At least one Ridge count a. Radial Loop (RH=/. LH=\) is a type of loop pattern in which the slanting or looping ridge flows towards the thumb finger. b. Ulnar Loop (RH=\, LH=/) is a type of loop pattern in which the slanting or looping ridge flows towards the little finger. 3. The Whorl (35%) Basic Elements of Whorl 1. Two or more Deltas 2. At least one complete circuiting ridge a. Plain Whorl (W) At least one circuiting ridge is touched or crossed by the imaginary line traversing between the two deltas. b. Central Pocket Loop Whorl No circuiting ridge within the pattern area is touched or cross by an imaginary line drawn between the two deltas. c. Double Loop Whorl 1. Two separate loop formation 2. Two Separate and distinct shoulder 3. Two deltas d. Accidental Whorl 1. A combination of two different patterns with the exception of the plain arch . 2. Two deltas Ridge Characteristics (Galton Details) 1. Ridge Dot (island ridge) – refers to a ridge formation in a form of a dot or period. 2. Bifurcation – a ridge formation in which a single ridge splits or divides into two or more ridges. It resembles a fork shape. 3. Converging Ridge – two ridges that meets at a certain point 4. Diverging Ridge – two ridges that spread apart 5. Enclosure or Lake ridge – a single ridge that divides into two but does not remain open and meet at a certain point to form the original single ridge.
6. Ending ridge – it refers to an abrupt end of a ridge 7. Type lines – is a diverging ridge that tends to surround the pattern area and serves as a basic boundary of fingerprint impression.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 9 pages?
- Winter '10
- double loop whorl, ridge, pocket loop whorl, Ridge Formation