this guides other discussions (e.g. media decisions, evaluating success of plan) 3. set the advertising budget 4. design the advertising ● focus on key benefits of product 5. create message content ● has persuasive and informational elements ● fear appeal: suggest that consumer can avoid negative experience through the purchase or use of a product or service, a change of behavior, or a reduction in the use of a product ○ advertisers must be sure that the appeal is strong enough to get the audience’s attention and concern but not so strong that it will lead them to tune out the message ○ we tend to counter argue ● sex appeal: suggest the company will increase the attractiveness of the user ○ may offend or deter some buyers ● humor appeal: product is more fun or exciting than competitors’ ○ humor may wear out quickly and lose the interest of consumers ○ effectiveness may vary across cultures if used in a global campaign ● creating message ○ use of well known “personalities” ■ one of the most widely held beliefs in advertising professes that celebrity ad endorsements enhance persuasion and improve advertising effectiveness ■ the rationale: celebrities are better able to connect with viewers by increasing attention levels, being likeable, credible, and by merging positive associations of the celebrity with the product ● celebrities currently appear in about 15% of ads in the US ● an est. of $50 billion is invested globally on corporate sponsorships and endorsements ■ in order for the endorser to be credible the person with appear to align with the brand features and the audience must believe they actually care about the product
■ potential risk is that the spokesperson’s image may change over time, becoming inconsistent with the image of the company or brand ● ex] lance armstrong, tiger woods ● ads need to be culturally sensitive ● selecting the right media ○ means by which the message is communicated to the target audience ○ tv, radio, newspaper, internet ● choosing medium and vehicle within that medium ○ media selection is related to the target audience, type of product, nature of the message, campaign objectives, available budget, and the costs of the alternative media ■ goals: maximizing exposure vs. minimizing costs ○ often chose a mix of media forms and vehicles to maximize the exposure of the message to the target audience while at the same time minimizing costs Know the basic terms ● reach: number of different people that are exposed to a message ● rating: % of households that are turned to a particular TV show or ration station ● frequency: avg. # of times a person in the target audience is exposed to an ad ● gross rating points: reach * frequency ● cost per thousand (CPM): cost of reaching 1,000 individuals with an advertising message in a given medium Media Alternatives Medium Advantage Disadvantages Television (Infomercials) large audiences uses sight, sound, and motion for effect High cost WASTED COVERAGE people outside target market will see Radio SEGMENTED MEDIUM can target specific local audiences Limited use because most
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