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List two examples of secondary sex characteristics in females and two in males. -Females: enlarged hips, weight gain.
- males: increased muscle mass, deeper voice. Are there secondary sex characteristics that could be the basis of a reliable sex determination test? Explain your answer. -Yes, I do believe this could be the basis of reliable sex determination. I believe this because in 1966 this was the method. And to me, it’s not as invasive. And one can determine sex from external and internal reproductive anatomy. -With that being said, it is hard to determine due to DSD’s (AMH)> Regarding DSDs … a.What does the abbreviation DSD stand for? -DSD stands for differences in sex development. b.How common are DSDs? -DSD’s are not common… 1/100 may get this disease. Answer the following questions using the table of DSDs. 1.CYP21A2gene mutations a.By what mechanism can a mutation in CYP21A2change testosterone levels? -The mechanism is an enlarged adrenal gland, which can change testosterone levels. b.What changes in phenotype are typical in people with a CYP21A2mutation? -Enlarged clitoris, short vaginal cavity, elevated testosterone levels, and decreased fertility. 2.SRYgene mutations a.How can an error in chromosome segregation during meiosis affect inheritance of the SRYgene? -The error is when an X chromosome crossover between an X and Y chromosome during meiosis. b.What is the effect of a nonfunctional SRYgene on the development of primary sex characteristics? -Low testosterone and and small testicles.
c.Which sex is typically assigned at birth to an individual with a mutation thatresults in a nonfunctional SRYgene? -Male 3.XO a.How can an error in chromosome segregation result in Turner syndrome? -During meiosis an error in chromosome segregation can occur resulting in one complete X chromosome, with the other X chromosome being partially or completely missing. b.Can an individual with Turner syndrome have biological children? -An individual with Turner syndrome cannot have biological children due to infertility and do not produce eggs. 1.ARgene mutation a.Which phenotypes may arise in an individual with a mutation in the ARgene? -Phenotypes that may arise in an individual with a mutation in the AR gene are female external reproductive anatomy. While males have internal anatomy. And breasts may develop. b.In humans, the ARgene is located on the X chromosome. If a person whois XY has a complete deletion of the ARgene, do you thinkgiving them testosterone injections during puberty would cause an increase in expression of male secondary sex characteristics compared to not receiving injections? Explain your answer. -2.XXY a.Which of the following terms describes the process of homologous chromosomes failing to separate correctly during meiosis?