9. What makes the tyrannical or unjust man the very opposite of the just man, the philosopher, according to Socrates in Book IX? Why is being just so much more desirable? Supplemental Study Questions for Plato’s Republic1. doxaand truth:*Are “the many” ignorant? Think about the belief of some 35% of the American population that our President is not a citizen of the United States. Are they ignorant of the facts? Misinformed? There is a debate over just how many Americans truly believethis and how many cynically assert that belief to rally opposition to the President. Howdo we know what “the people” believe? *Catch yourself every time you use the phrases “most people think” or “some people believe” and think about howyou know what anyone else thinks. What does that phrase make it possible to say that could not be said otherwise?*We know that our perceptions and experience deceive us, that others aim to deceive us, so how and why do we believe or know anything?*What is true or not true changes over time. “True and false are attributes of speech, not of things,” said Thomas Hobbes. Twenty years ago, we were quite certain that sugar made you fat. Ten years ago fat made you fat. Today carbohydrates make you fat. Does the fact that knowledge changes eliminate the possibility of Truth or does it relegate truth to the realms of doxaand faith? *To what extent are we governed by the patterns of perception we inherit and learn?How much control do we have over our own perceptions? Is education anything morethan indoctrination?*What angle of vision is best, what perspective is best, to really see things as they areor should be?*Socrates says in the Apology, “At any rate it seems to me that I am wiser than he is to this small extent, that I do not think that I know what I do not know.” How does onego about discovering what one does not know? Socrates did so in conversation or elunchus. How should we do so?*How do we settle the difference between opinion and true knowledge today as it concerns ruling? Is there still a balance of force and persuasion? In what sense are thethings we believe or know to be true tied to power?2. force and persuasion:*Certainly we are all born and raised in a certain time and place that shapes our beliefs and our thinking. We are historical creatures. How else are we made to believe things? Censorship, education, faith, discipline, habit, experience, observation, repetition, and so on may all be entailed; what is the balance of force/coercion and persuasion in how you have come to believe what you do? *How is the difference between knowledge and opinion settled? Can it be settled, even temporarily, without power? Is justice a consequence or a cause of settling that question?