each heating district • ( $0.037 million/MWh) The total annual power demand in this region is equivalent to all Nordic countries combined or half of the western interconnected in US.
Hourly Power Balance
Potential Cost Effective Solutions Electric Vehicles Integration with Heating System Interregional Transmission Coordination
Opportunities for Increasing Wind Integration and Reducing Emissions 1. Strategy of Coordinated Interregional Transmission : • Northeastern region (2020) Shaanxi 2 . Energy System Integration between Power and Heating Systems : • Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan (Jing- Jin-Tang, JJT) region (2015) 3. Influence of EV Development on Wind Integration : • Beijing area (2020)
Wind Power vs Electric Vehicles? Electric Vehicles are found on average to emit more CO 2 and conventional pollutants than gasoline vehicles in China because of the coal-dominated power generation structure. Choices: • A. Public Buses vs. Light Duty Vehicles? • B. Fast Charging vs. Slow Charging?
The impact of EV charging on wind integration Available wind Without EV With EV 30k Public bus fast charging 1 million LDV fast charging 1 million LDV slow charging
Environmental Impacts Main Findings: • Electrification of 30k public buses in Beijing could reduce total NOx by another 10% • Fast charging is less effective than slow charging in decreasing CO 2 and NO x emissions • Coordinated slow charging would reduce the wind curtailment and thus emissions
References ◦ CHEN Xinyu, Zhiwei Xu, Chris Nielsen, Michael McElroy, Plug-in electric vehicles: Opportunities to reduce emissions of CO 2 and conventional pollutants in China, Environmental Science & Technology, Under review. ◦ CHEN Xinyu, KANG Chongqing, Mark O’Malley. Increasing the Flexibility of CHP with Heat Storage and an Electrical Boiler for Wind Power Integration in China: Modeling and Implications. IEEE transaction on Power Systems, 2015.30 (4), pp.1848-1857. ◦ CHEN Xinyu, Xi Lu, Michael McElroy, Chris Nielsen, Chongqing Kang. Synergies of Wind Power and Electrified Space Heating: Case Study for Beijing, Environmental Science & Technology. 2014, 48 (3), pp 2016 – 2024. ◦ Kang Chongqing, CHEN Xinyu, Qianyao Xu, et al. Balance of power: Towards a More Environmentally Friendly, Efficient, and Effective Integration of Energy Systems in China. IEEE power & energy magazine, September/October, 2013 ◦ CHEN Xinyu, Michael McElroy, et al. Integrated Energy Systems for Higher Wind Penetration in China: Barriers, Technical Solutions and Incentives. IEEE transaction on Power Systems. Preparing for submission. ◦ Inter-regional transmission coordination: opportunities for better wind integration in China, working paper
Physical structure and modeling of power and district heating system 1.CHP units 2 . Heat storage 3.Electric Heating Power system District Heating 1 2 3 Electric boiler Heat pump Storage & Energy loss Efficiency and passive storage Boundary & costs
Interregional Power System Simulation Model Simulation Model Features : • Unit Commitments and dispatch model • Based on individual unit characteristics and hourly load/wind data •
- Fall '10