iv. Macrosystem : Cultural Context: Beliefs, values and norms of behavior (if it is the belief of the culture that parents alone should be responsible for raising their children, the culture is less likely to provide financial or other resources to help parents). v. Chronosystem : Dimension of time as it relates to an individual’s environment. Elements can be external (timing of a loved one’s death) or internal (physiological changes that occur when aging). Individuals react differently to environmental changes as they get older. Includes socio-historical circumstances (how opportunities for women to pursue careers have increased over the past 30 years and it has impacted how families are structured). 4. Teratogen – What is it and Advice we’d give to expecting mothers a. An agent that has the potential to cause birth defects or have a negative effect on the cognitive and behavioral outcomes of a child. i. Keep your stress levels low ii. Do not do illegal drugs such as cocaine and heroin because it could cause low weight, body length and head circumference at birth, cognitive and neurological deficits, and withdraw symptoms after birth including tremors, irritability, abnormal crying, disturbed sleep and impaired motor control and attention deficits later in childhood. iii. Do not drink alcohol – it can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, deformity, defective limbs, heart problems, and cognitive impairment. iv. No smoking tobacco – it will reduce the amount of oxygen that the fetus is able to get and increase CO2 levels in the mother’s blood. v. Make sure your husband is healthy. Bad paternal health could result in miscarriages, cancer, and infant deformity. vi. Watch out for environmental hazards – Radiation can cause gene mutations and chromosomal abnormalities. X-rays within the first few weeks of pregnancy increase the risk of microencephaly, cognitive problems and leukemia.
5. Motor Skill Development and Infancy a. Piaget’s sensory motor stages i. Sensorimotor (0-2) – Begins to make use of imitation, memory and thought. Begins to recognize that objects do not cease to exist when they are not in view. Moves from reflex actions to goal- directed activity. ii. Preoperational (2-7) – Gradually develops use of symbols, including language. Think operations through logically in one direction. Difficulty seeing someone else’s point of view. iii. Concrete Operational (7-11) – Able to solve concrete problems. Understands mathematical operations such as classification and seriation. iv. Formal Operational (11-adult) – Able to solve abstract problems in a logical fashion. Becomes more scientific in thinking. Develops concerns about social issues and identity b. Cephalocaudal means head to toe. As such, the cephalocaudal principle refers to the general pattern of development seen in the earliest years of postnatal development specifically ranging from infancy into toddlerhood.
- Fall '10