PSYCH
psy101-lecture1 (1).pdf

Definition of psychology psychology is not just a set

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Definition of Psychology Psychology is not just a set of results from past experiments– it is a “way of asking and answering questions” Definition : the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. Behavior : anything a human or nonhuman animal does- any action that we can observe and record. Blinking, smiling, talking, responding to questionnaires. Mental Processes: internal states we infer from behavior Thoughts, beliefs, and feelings.
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1/2/18 10 History of Psychology Before 300 B.C., Aristotle (Greek Philosopher) was asking the right questions Asked questions about learning, memory, motivation, emotion, perception, and personality. Why does a meal make us sleepy? Aristotle: meal causes gas and heat to collect around the heart à aka the source of our personality Birth of Psychology as a Field Psychology as a field born December 1879 Psychology’s first experiment: Wilhelm Wundt Telegraph Experiment Measure ”Atoms of the mind” with behavioral response
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1/2/18 11 Wilhelm Wundt Telegraph Experiment 1 2 History of Psychology Psychology’s earliest pioneers came from many countries: Wundt (German Physiologist); Darwin (English Evolutionist); Pavlov (Russian Psychologist); Freud (Austrian Physician). Mary Whiton Calkins (late 1800s): First female American Psychological Association President; outscored male peers on PhD exams but Harvard denied her a degree. Margaret Floy Washburn: First women to receive psychology Ph.D.
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1/2/18 12 History of Psychology 1920’s B.F. Skinner and Watson: Psychology is “the scientific study of observable behavior”. Watson & Rayner: Insist psychology is study of behavior “Little Albert” experiment Fear could be learned History of Psychology 1800s The science of mental life 1920s Freudian psychology and behaviorism Scientific study of observable behavior 1960s Cognitive Revolution Rogers and Maslow: Behaviorism too limiting Study of both Behavior and Mental Life
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1/2/18 13 The Scientific Method “A Self-correcting process for asking questions and observing nature’s answer.” 1. Theory 2. Hypothesis 3. Research and Observations * Correlation is NOT causation The Scientific Method 1. Theory Effectively organizes a range of observations Leads to clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory Stimulates research that leads to a refined theory
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1/2/18 14 The Scientific Method 2. Hypothesis: a testable prediction [about some outcome] informed by a theory It is a STATEMENT not a question. You can first start with a question about something Then formulate an answer to your question in statement form à Hypothesis A good hypothesis includes predictions that can be measured, e.g. words like higher, or lower.
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