The literature on policy analysis and evaluation (Braybrooke and Lindblom 1963, Stone 1988, Guba and Lincoln 1989, Lindblom 1990, Fischer and Forester 1993), environmental policy making (Hajer 1995, Hisschemöller et al. 2001), and technology and risk assessment (Wynne 1975, 1995, Stirling 2003, 2006) provides ample evidence of how knowledge production and politics intertwine. For sustainable development , these issues intensify with the complexity of debated phenomena and the focus on transformative changes ( Thompson 1997, Funtowicz et al. 1998, Voß et al. 2007). Further development of designs for reflexive governance thus needs to take into account the politics of learning. A key task is to provide for safeguards against domination and instrumentalization by powerful groups. In the context of the framework set out above, this comes down to the integration of strategic interactions among conflicting societal perspectives (micro politics) and institutional provisions to calibrate and make political interactions productive (micro polity ). Reflecting on adequate ways to work with conflict and power in the process of experimentation and learning is a necessary complement for coping with ambivalence, Ecology and Society 16(2): 9 uncertainty, and distributed capacities in implementing sustainable development strategies. As conditions for deliberation and societal learning are controversially debated on a more fundamental level of social analysis and theory (Flyvbjerg 2001, Ryfe 2005, Parkinson 2006), we here identify a critical problem for the concept of reflexive governance more generally. Without claiming originality or comprehensiveness, we wish to hint at three possible search strategies that could be followed in meeting the challenge of politics of learning: The alt resolves the shortcomings of the current scientific method Hosseinie and Mahzoon, 11 – *Radmarz, Department of Solid Mechanics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, and **Mojtaba, Department of Solid Mechanics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University (“Irreducibility and emergence in complex systems and the quest for alternative insights,” Complexity, vol. 17, is. 2, November/December 2011, article first published 6/23/11, Wiley)RK SUGGESTIONS FOR SOME METAPHYSICAL REFINEMENTS 37 37
Little Rock Central 2012-2013 Complexity Theory Kritik K. Chakka Attempting to resolve a dilemma like emergence, we have to surpass the conventional metaphysics and try to grasp a more profound insight of the universe. This is tantamount to a partial fulfillment of man's search and sustained quest for the identification of the essential elements of nature, which of course derives from his faith and conviction that they indeed exist. Such underlying essential elements can in no sense be incidental, either phenomenologically or in the laws that condition the phenomena incurred in various realm of scientific experience. An essential feature is thrust toward unity in diversity, which is of the utmost prominence and is intricately mingled with almost every property of the nature.
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