Ancient societies built around water Control Mediterranean fringe Romans head

Ancient societies built around water control

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Ancient societies built around water Control Mediterranean fringe Romans head north into continental Europe and have to change their transportation style Go over land, not water Celts developed modern barrel around 800 BC o Oak wood likely o Pushing in central northern Europe territory o Wood is tougher o The barrels are bigger o Easier to transport—can roll Barrel usage really exploded from 1000AD to 1500 AD Barrels for 2000 years were the standard shipping containers for virtually everything Wine kept in oak barrels took on properties that improved it by making it softer and, in some cases, better tasting Robert Mondavi o 60s and 70s o oak in wine industry
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° ° Bordeaux barrique style 225 liters 50 gallons 300 standard 750 mL bottles ° Burgundy style 228 liters 60 gallons ° Hogshead Cognac style 300 liter 79 gallons ° used in parts of southern France, Italy, Barolo, Barbaresco, Croatia ° also shipped solids ° ° fermenting ° arrak west asia ° sake japan ° oak barrels used for maturing and aging cognac sherry port whiskey o by law all of them have to be in barrels craft beer ° ° primary fermentation ° secondary fermentation ° maturation
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° used more so in the liquor industry whiskey/bourbon scotch brown liquors tequila rum ° ° coopers barrel makers ° cooperage business of making barrels ° ° barrels are hand crafted not cheap 500-1600 bucks ° ° ° ° 56 cm ° cut with grain ° narrow at ends ° 25-30 staves hit and miss ° 2 with metal hoop ° staves bent fire in middle water on wood large vice is attached ° 2 hours of tightening ° toast interior ° more singe = richer flavor ° straw in gaps ° ° giant wheel 7,650,000 liter
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14 the good wood 01/23/2017 ° wood/barrel terroir
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° almost exclusively oak white oak northern hemisphere and Eurasia ° ° chemical of physical issue with other woods chestnut is high in tannins o too porous redwood o rigid o cant be manipulated apple wood, cherry wood o don’t actually taste good for wine pine is ass o sappy o resin o retsina wine ° ° US and France Barrel production ° ° Why white oak 1) malleability/workability; can be bent, is flexible not brittle as apposed to many other woods and even other oaks 2) porosity o naturally fibrous o liquid soaked in o perfect amount of pores 3) desirable flavors and aromas o phenols we love
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vanillin organic compound o tannins structure of wine o wood, pencil shavings, cedar closet ° ° white oak found everywhere production in france and US ° ° American Quercus alba o Fast growth o Wider grains o Slightly lower wood tannins East coast to middle (right before texas) o Missouri o Wisconsin Largest cooperage in US o Independent state company in Lebanon Missouri o Ozark mountains ° ° France Quercus robur o Common oak found all over Europe Quercus petraea = white oak found mostly in France Considered superior because they are slower growing, which makes for finer grain and increased aromatic components like vanillin, phenols and tannins
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