Farming and hunting activities : On process approach (farming )the characteristics are :
5 Land preparation including levels Removal of obstacles, stones and rocks Soil enrichment Water management Planting Weed control Pest and disease control Comparisons and benchmarking with neighboring farms Monitoring progress relative to each step Harvesting Ο n a target approach ( hunting ) the characteristics are: Hear or see possible prey Isolate a specific target Prepare personal tools Approach target with known skills Aim at first realizable opportunity Make second attempt if first fails Relax once successful until hungry. The effect on thinking of these two activities then is presented on the following table: Effects on Thinking Farming Hunting -Long term -The process is king -So enhance participation in the process -Weather affects output so poor years understood -Market share (amount of land that can be developed) is paramount -Growth comes from extra market share (more land) and improving the process -Short term -The Individual is king -So enhance the empowerment of the individual -Weather should not affect output so a bad year not accepted -Hunting skill (return on outings) paramount -Acquisitions are another form of hunting -Growth from faster hunting Table 2 : effects on thinking: target vs process approach The Japanese have been farmers for 50 years , so easily one can understand their devotion and discipline on continuous improvement way of thinking and living (11) .The implementation
6 of Kaizen principles has been viewed as one of the key factors to Japanese competitive success. Kaizen then has emerged in the U.S. as a methodology leading to dramatic increases in productivity by manufacturing companies Process quality improvement needs the use of specific tools and techniques to be introduced and supervisors and operators to be trained on. Appendix 2.1 contains examples of continuous improvement tools, the ,so known as ‘9 Tools‘, such as : process flow charts, Pareto analysis , run charts, data collection, histograms, scatter analysis,checklist ,a cause and effect diagram, control charts, that used by the teams to detect problems , facilitate processes and implement proposals (12) . The role of visual management as a concept, practice or tool is promoted in Kaizen through individuals or teams to help people identify problems or promote empowerment. The practice of visual management involves the clear display of tangible objects (gembutsu), charts, lists, records of performance, so that both management and workers are continuously reminded of all the elements that make the Visual controls make it easy for everyone to identify the state of a normal or abnormal condition, thus providing operators and management visibility into performance (see Appendix2.2) Visual controls tracking performance should capture the team effort rather than the individual. Visual controls usually lead to visual management, which can
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- Summer '15
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