solutions and solubility

# A solution has a lower melting point and a higher

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a solution has a lower melting point and a higher boiling point than a pure substance which is known as freezing point depression and boiling point elevation nonvolatile solutes are used to lower the freezing point of pure solvents the amount a freezing point is lowered by is given: ∆T f is the change in temperature of the freezing point in Celsius degrees relative to freezing point of pure solvent, usually reported as positive number m is the molality of the solution in moles solute / kg solvent K f is freezing point depression constant for solvent boiling point of a pure solution is lower than the boiling point of a solution this increase of BP is known as boiling point elevation ∆T f is the change in temperature of the boiling point in Celsius degrees relative to boiling point of pure solvent, usually reported as positive number m is the molality of the solution in moles solute / kg solvent

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K f is boiling point elevation constant for solvent Osmotic Pressure osmosis is the flow of solvent from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration osmotic pressure is the pressure required to stop the osmotic flow of water / solvent from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration where M is the molarity of a solution, T is the temperature (Kelvin), and R is the ideal gas constant (0.08207 L*atm/mol*K) Colligative Properties of Strong Electrolyte Solutions the ratio of moles of particles in a solution to moles of formula units dissolved is called the Van't Hoff factor (i) the reason the van Hoff't do not exactly equal the expected values is that some ions effectively pair in solution the dissociation of ionic compounds in reaction is not always complete to calculate the freezing point depression, boiling point elevation, and osmotic pressure of ionic solutions: Colloids a colloidal suspension (rather than a true solution) or simply, a colloid , is a mixture in which a dispersed substance is finely divided in a dispersing medium (which is solvent- likea). e.g. fog, smokes, whipped cream milk whether a mixture is a colloid or not is determined by the size of the particles it contains if particles are small then the mixture is a solution if particles have a diameter > 1 µm (sand for example) then the mixture is a heterogenous mixture - sand in water will eventually settle out of the water if particles are between 1 nm and 1000 nm in size, the mixture is a colloid colloidal particles are small enough to stay dispersed throughout the dispersing medium by collisions w/other molecules or atoms when you view a colloidal particle dispersed in a liquid under a microscope, you witness its jittery motion along a random path this motion is known as Brownian motion and is caused by collisions with molecules in the liquid
this micelles formed by soap caused a scattering of light known as the Tyndall effect

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