Plant Diversity The Evolution of Seed Plants.docx

24 sepal each of the parts of the calyx of a flower

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24. Sepal: each of the parts of the calyx of a flower, enclosing the petals and typically green and leaflike. 25. Stem: the main body or stalk of a plant or shrub, typically rising above ground but occasionally subterranean. 26. Roots: the part of a plant that attaches it to the ground or to a support, typically underground, conveying water and nourishment to the rest of the plant via numerous branches and fibers 27. Leaves: a flattened structure of a higher plant, typically green and bladelike, that is attached to a stem directly or via a stalk. Leaves are the main organs of photosynthesis and transpiration. 28. Vascular tissue: the tissue in higher plants that constitutes the vascular system, consisting of phloem and xylem, by which water and nutrients are conducted throughout the plant. 29. Monocot plants: Monocotyledons commonly referred to as monocots are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided. 30. Dicot plants: There are about 175,000 known species of dicots. Most common garden plants , shrubs and trees , and broad- leafed flowering plants such as magnolias , roses , geraniums , and hollyhocks are dicots 31. Morphine: a bitter crystalline addictive narcotic base C 17 H 19 NO 3 that is the principal alkaloid of opium and is used in the form of its hydrated sulfate (C 17 H 19 NO 3 ) 2 ·H 2 SO 4 ·5H 2 O or hydrated hydrochloride C 17 H 19 NO 3 ·HCl·3H 2 O as an analgesic and sedative
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Amber Holmes-Turner Plant Diversity: The Evolution of Seed Plants 32. Quinine: quinone aromatic dicarbonyl compound derived from a dihydroxy aromatic compound. Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) is a dimethoxy dicarbonyl derivative of benzene involved in electron transport. Other quinones may act as tanning agents. 33. Digitalin menthol: a crystalline compound with a cooling minty taste and odor, found in peppermint and other natural oils. It is used as a flavoring and in decongestants and analgesics. 34. Starch: an odorless tasteless white substance occurring widely in plant tissue and obtained chiefly from cereals and potatoes. It is a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate store and is an important constituent of the human diet. 35. Sucrose: is common table sugar. It is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of the two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose. Sucrose is produced naturally in plants, from which table sugar is refined. It has the formula C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁.
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