PIUS IX was Pope at this time, he was the longest reigning Pope.He reacted against the creation of Italy by saying they were guilty of theft.Said they stole the Papal state and the city of Rome and that they would go to hell.1874 he issued a Papal Letter (PAPAL BULL)—NON EXPEDIT•Italian Catholics should not have anything to do with their country. If you serve, are part of the government, or vote, you are committing a sin.LEO XII•Took over when Pius died.•He was a very liberal Pope, but not in regard to Italy.1886—NON LICET, issued by Leo, another Papal bull•Reiterated the previous Papal Bull, do not have anything to do with Italy.F.AGUSTINO DEPRETIS, FRANCESCO CRISPI, and GIOVANNI GIOLITTI were the greatest rulers after Cavour died.If you got in their way, they took you in and made you a part of the corruption, and if you still rebelled they made you “disappear”.CRISPI was said to make bribery “fine art.”GIOLITTI said if you have a problem, leave it alone. Most problems solve themselves, or get so bad you cant fix them. He had no solution to any problem. He was such a hopeless person. The Italian people gave him the nickname BOLOGNA SAUSAGE…in italy this was half pork, and half from donkey meat. A combination of PORK ASS, that is what they called their Prime Minister.AVANTI!:20
•The title of their newspaper. BENITO MUSSOLINI was the editor of this.•They will say he cant be any worse, but he can be.GERMANYOTTO VON BISMARCKoRuler of Germany, most influential figure in the 19thcentury.oHe was 6’4 when the average man was 5’5.oVery well educated, and knew all the languages.o1862—became Prime minister of Germany.oHe remained devoutly Christian.oThe weird combination of religion and struggle made his personality very distinctive.oHe uttered these words when he became Prime Minister:o“The great questions of the day are not settled by speeches or negotiations, they are settled by WAR.”oHe wanted to create a Germany that was welded together by war and struggle.oHe had to convince the king, WILLHELM I, that the wars he wanted to fight were winnable.GET NOTES FOR THURS 3/15 AND TUES 3/20Victoria 1837-1901Edward VII 1901-10Geroge V 1910-Lord Earl GreyRobert PeelLord Melbourne (Edward Lamb)W.E. GlasstoneB. DisrealiLord Salisbury R. CecilH. AsquithD. Lord GeorgeConservativesLiberalsToriesLaborWags?The Monarchy in G. Britain reined, but PARLIAMENT ruled.Victoria had the second longest reign in modern history. (1839-1901)oShe married a German Prince, PRINCE ALBERToHe was called her CONSORToThey were actually in love, which wasn’t always true for marriages.oThey had a lot of childrenoIn 1861, he died of typhoid fever. (Most people died of infectious diseases.)21
oHis death was an example of how contingent life was before modern medicine.oHer eldest son, Edward VII, took the throne as an old man. “The last fun King”oHe was given the title PRINCE OF WHALES, name given to inheritors of the throne in England.