Might even be possible to install genes that offer lifelong protection against

Might even be possible to install genes that offer

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Might even be possible to install genes that offer lifelong protection against infection, Alzheimer’s, and maybe the effects of aging. Repairing the responsible mutations could eradicate these diseases from the germline, the genetic material passed from one generation to the next. No future family members would inherit them. C2: However, the risks involved and potential problems it may cause undermine the purported benefits of such a practice. Overall stand – it cannot be justified. R1: The use of genetic modification in human reproduction is a highly risky process. This may undermine the very aim of genetic modification to prevent the spread of genetic diseases to future generations (to counter C1R3). This constitutes an immoral/unethical act. Modifying DNA at the embryo, egg or sperm stage is dangerous because it can change the genome of an embryo in unexpected ways, and these genetic changes would be passed on to future offspring and subsequent generations . o For example, CRISPR can introduce off-target effects or change bits of the genome far from where scientists had intended. o Many countries have banned germline engineering, and most scientific communities have concluded that it would be too risky to do it. o The European Union’s Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine says tampering with the gene pool would be a crime against “human dignity” and human rights. 3-parent techniques involve making changes in human DNA that can be passed down to future generations . One fear is that a mistake could create a new disease that could be inherited.
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o In the case of the Jordanian couple, some diseased DNA from the mother was carried over into the donor egg. The question remains over whether there will be long-term repercussions for the child's health due to the traces of the mother's mitochondrial DNA that he carries, which could prompt some of his mitochondria to function improperly. The percentage of affected mitochondria can differ between tissues. Just 2% of the mitochondrial DNA of cells in the boy’s urine came from the mother, but that figure rose as high as 9% in cells from the child’s circumcised foreskin. Organs such as the heart or brain are impossible to test without invasive surgery. Scientists don't know yet what amount of diseased mitochondria would cause noticeable symptoms, or disease, in a child created using genetic material from two women. Studies in mice have shown that mixtures of mitochondria can result in neurological disorders or metabolic conditions . Unlike some other scientific procedures which started out with a certain level of uncertainty too, the risks of genetic modification in human reproduction have much higher stakes since they involve human lives and future generations. R2: The fact that it is an embryo and its genes that are being experimented on should make us question the morality of such a practice.
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