6 define lower motor neuron lesion and how it is

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Introduction to Health Care
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Chapter 1 / Exercise 3
Introduction to Health Care
Haroun/Mitchell
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6. Define lower motor neuron lesion and how it is diagnosed. A lower motor neuron lesion is the interruption of motor tracts from spinal cord to muscle and is indicated by flaccid paralysis, absence of normal and abnormal reflexes, and muscle wasting. Common Diseases 1. What is the treatment for hydrocephalus? Surgical insertion of a shunt from the obstructed ventricular system to the right atrium of the heart or to the peritoneal cavity. 2. Describe the symptoms and physical examination findings in patients with multiple sclerosis. The patient may experience irregular, intermittent or progressive impairment of sensory or motor function: hypesthesia, paresthesia, visual disturbances, disorders of equilibrium; muscular weakness, spasticity, or unsteadiness; tremors, nystagmus, diplopia, disturbances of swallowing or bladder function. Findings on neurologic examination are typically diffuse and highly variable: hypesthesia or anesthesia, irregularly distributed muscle weakness with spasticity and hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Babinski reflex, impaired superficial abdominal reflexes, ataxia, uncoordinated (scanning) speech, tremors, nystagmus, temporal pallor of the optic disks followed by optic atrophy, visual field defects, emotional lability.
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Introduction to Health Care
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Chapter 1 / Exercise 3
Introduction to Health Care
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3. What are the precipitating events and what is the treatment for Guillain-Barré Syndrome? Acute infection such as influenza, infectious mononucleosis, varicella zoster; myocardial infarction; certain vaccines; surgery. Treatment includes physical therapy; cardiac monitoring and pulse oximetry, with mechanical ventilation as needed, intravenous immune globulin, and plasmapheresis to remove antibody from serum. 4. How is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosed? Physical examination reveals muscle weakness and atrophy, visible fasciculations, evidence of cranial and spinal motor nerve malfunction without sensory impairment. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, spasticity, and rigidity indicate upper motor neuron degeneration. Electromyography and muscle biopsy confirm loss of motor nerve supply to affected areas. 5. Describe the symptoms and physical findings in patients with Parkinson disease. Resting tremor, initially in one extremity, that is exacerbated by emotional stress and reduced during voluntary motion. Stiffness, rigidity, and bradykinesia (slowness of movement) commonly occur, with postural instability and gait disorders. Physical examination reveals immobile, masklike face (masklike facies, parkinsonian facies), with infrequent blinking. Reduced automatic movements such as swinging the arms while walking. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes and resistance to passive movement of joints, often with “cogwheel” rigidity. A flexed posture, a shuffling and seemingly hurried (festinating) gait, and difficulty in standing from a sitting position are typical. Seborrhea (excessive secretion of sebum) on the scalp and face and excessive drooling are also often seen. The handwriting becomes smaller (micrographia). There may be mild deterioration of mental function.

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