Ch 9 VSEPR and valence bond theory.pdf

Single bonds sigma σ bonds bonding electrons are

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Single bonds; sigma ( σ ) bonds bonding electrons are centered on the internuclear axis the line connecting the internuclear axis, the line connecting the two nuclei of the bonded atoms H H H S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 110 H
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Multiple bonds; pi ( π ) bonds bonding electrons are in nonhybridizied p orbitals perpendicular to the internuclear axis (the line joining the two nuclei) y z y z y z x x x The regions of overlapping e - density are above and b l th i t l i p y p z p x below the internuclear axis A double bond = one sigma and one pi bond A t i l b d i d t i b d S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 111 A triple bond = one sigma and two pi bonds
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Bonding in ethylene, C 2 H 2 . There is trigonal planar molecular geometry about each C. Sigma bonds are shown as sticks S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 112
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Bonding in ethylene, C 2 H 2 . The C-C and C-H sigma bonds are represented as blue spheres S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 113
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Bonding in ethylene, C 2 H 2 . The pi bond is formed from overlap of electrons in the nonhybridized p orbital S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 114
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Bonding in ethylene, C 2 H 2 . The pi bond is formed from overlap of electrons in the nonhybridized p orbital S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 115
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Bonding in ethylene, C 2 H 2 . The pi bond is formed from overlap of electrons in the nonhybridized p orbital S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 116
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Bonding in ethylene, C 2 H 2 . The pi bond is formed from overlap of electrons in the nonhybridized p orbital S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 117
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Account for the bonding in C 2 H 4 by writing out the orbital boxes for C and H, and hybridizing appropriate orbitals 1 D L i t t 1. Draw Lewis structure Types and numbers of bonds Lone pairs 2. Determine e - pair geometry (VSEPR) 3 Determine hybrid 3. Determine hybrid orbitals needed to give correct e - pair geometry (sigma bonds) 4. Account for presence of double and triple bonds using available bonds using available nonhybridized p orbitals (pi bonds) S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 118
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Predict the types and numbers of bonds in acetylene, C 2 H 2 1 Draw Lewis structure 1. Types and numbers of bonds Lone pairs 2. Determine e - pair geometry (VSEPR) 3. Determine hybrid Determine hybrid orbitals needed to give correct e - pair geometry (sigma b d ) bonds) 4. Account for presence of double and triple bonds using available S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 119 bonds using available nonhybridized p orbitals (pi bonds)
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Bonding in acetylene, C 2 H 2 C sp sp Orbitals on an sp hybridized C atom: sp sp p y p z p y p z = Orbital on a H atom: H Orbital overlap between 2C and 2H: C sp sp p C sp sp p H H S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 120 p y z p y z
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Bonding in acetylene, C 2 H 2 C sp sp Orbitals on an sp hybridized C atom: sp sp p y p z p y p z = Orbital on a H atom: H Orbital overlap between 2C and 2H: C sp sp p C sp sp p H H S. Ensign, Chem. 1210 121 p y z p y z
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Predict the types and numbers of bonds in formaldehyde, CH 2 O 1 Draw Lewis structure 1.
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