Like orsino he is more manipulated than

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Like Orsino, he is “more manipulated than manipulating”—so he lacks power and agency (181). Paglia also observers that “There may be a homoerotic element in [Orlando’s] prompt consent to Rosalind/Ganymede’s transsexual game. In As You Like It , Shakespeare reduces the Renaissance prestige of male authority to maximize his heroine’s princely potency” (181). As well, “Rosalind is intellectually and emotionally superior, sweeping all the characters into her sexual orbit” (181). Paglia points to some suggestion of lesbian love in Phoebe’s infatuation with Rosalind, and lots of evidence to suggest a homoerotic connection between Celia and Rosalind (181)—see again, 1.3.75ff. There are also hints of Celia’s jealousy of Orlando, for example at 1.2.247 and 4.1.133. In the source by Lodge, “it is the Celia character who merrily invents and urges on the sham wedding ceremony” (Paglia 182). Paglia asks: “Are there any fixed coordinates for masculinity and femininity in Shakespeare’s transvestite comedies? Commentary on sex- differences can be fatuous, as in Orlando’s pontifications [or Orsino’s]. Rosalind’s maxims on the sexes are usually satirical. In these plays, clothes make the man” (182-3). As well, “Art and love dissolve social habit and form, a Dionysian fluidity. Shakespeare’s clowns also inhabit a déclassé world of androgynous freedom. The medieval fool or jester had licensed access to satiric commentary and multiple personae” (186). Both Viola and Rosalind show self discipline while other characters are controlled by their own excesses and self indulgence, but “Viola is discreet and solicitous, Rosalind aggressive, mischievous, bantering, railing”; in effect, “She theatricalizes her inner life” (Paglia 186). VI Time in the Play In the essay in the back of the Folger edition, Susan Snyder notes that the plot of this play is not as focused on one main problem to be resolved as some of the other plays we have studied— such as Merchant with the saving of Antonio, or the Dream with the mix-ups with the love juice in the forest, or Shrew with the question of the taming or not of Kate (Snyder 231-2). Instead, the Forest of Arden is a kind of time out (Snyder 232). Jay Halio also suggests that timelessness in the play is part of the pastoral ideal (Halio 88). Moreover, it is an aspect of the pastoral that is not satirized (Halio 88). Even in Orlando’s first speech we can see the focus on time and timelessness (see 1.1.1ff). The past of his father lives on in him is the point here. His memory is kept alive—as Adam says, in calling Orlando “you memory of old Sir Rowland.” Adam himself is a living reminder of an older age (Halio 89)—note what Orlando says of him at 2.3.57ff. The antique world and the golden world are clearly aligned—cf. Charles’s speech about Duke Senior at 1.1.115ff.

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