On wednesday at one oclock in the afternoon i stepped

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On Wednesday, March 12, 1947, at one o'clock in the afternoon, I stepped to the rostrum in the hall of the House of Representatives and addressed a joint session of the Congress and asked the senators and representatives to meet together so that I might place before them what I believed was an extremely critical situation. To cope with this situation, I recommended immediate action by the Congress. But I also wished to state, for all the world to know, what the position of the United States was in the face of the new totalitarian challenge. This declaration of policy soon began to be referred to as the "Truman Doctrine." This was, I believe, the turning point in America's foreign policy, which now declared that wherever aggression, direct or indirect, threatened the peace, the security of the United States was involved.
THE MILITHRY-IHDUSTRIIIL camPLE X DlHI&HT EISEilHOlHER'S FRREUIELL ADDRESS, &IVEn on JRilURRY 17, 1961, lHRRnS OF AfflERICRn STRU&&LES, InTERnllL RnD EHTERnRL, YET TO BE lHRITTEn BY HISTORY. We now stand ten years past the midpoint of a century that has witnessed four major wars among great nations. Three of these involved our own country. Despite these holocausts America is today the strongest, the most influential and most productive nation in the world. Understandably proud of this pre-eminence, we yet realize that America's leadership and prestige depend, not merely upon our unmatched material progress, riches and military strength, but on how we use our power in the interests of world peace and human betterment ... A vital element in keeping the peace is our military establishment. Our arms must be mighty, ready for instant action, so that o . potential aggressor may be tempted to nsk his own destruction... Until the latest of our world conflicts, the United States had no armaments industry. American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well. But now we can no longer risk emergency improvisation of national defense; we have been compelled to create a permanent armaments industry of vast proportions. Added to this, three and a half million men and women are directly engaged in the defense establishment. We annually spend on military security more than the net income of all United States corporations ... This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The to _ t l influence -- economic, political, even spmtual __ is felt in every city, every State house, every office of the Federal government. We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications. Our toil, resources and livelihood are all involved; so is the very structure of our society... In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.

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