7 anil kumar s and n suresh production and operations

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7) Anil Kumar S, and N. Suresh, Production and Operations Management (with Skill Development, Caselets and Cases), Second Edition, New Age International Publishers: New Delhi, 2008 8) Anil Kumar S, and N. Suresh, Operations Management, New Age International Publishers: New Delhi, 2009 11.11 LEARNING ACTIVITIES Visit a company and collect the details regarding the charts and diagrams they use in their factory 11.12 KEY WORDS Work study, method study, motion study, time study, diagram, charts in method study.
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168 LESSON 12 WORK MEASUREMENT 12.1 INTRODUCTION Work measurement is also called by the name ‘time study’. Work measurement is absolutely essential for both the planning and control of operations. Without measurement data, we cannot determine the capacity of facilities or it is not possible to quote delivery dates or costs. We are not in a position to determine the rate of production and also labour utilisation and efficiency. It may not be possible to introduce incentive schemes and standard costs for budget control. 12.2 OBJECTIVES This lesson will give a detailed understanding on work measurement, objectives of work measurement, time study, allowances, and productivity. After completing this lesson you will be familiar with work measurement, objectives of work measurement, time study, allowances, and productivity. 12.3 CONTENTS 12.3.1 Objectives of Work Measurement 12.3.2 Techniques of Work Measurement 12.3.3 Time Study 12.3.3.1 Steps in Making Time Study 12.3.3.2 Computation of Standard Time 12.3.4 Allowances 12.3.5 Productivity 12.3.5.1 Factors Influencing Productivity 12.3.5.2 Productivity Improvement Techniques 12.3.1 OBJECTIVES OF WORK MEASUREMENT The use of work measurement as a basis for incentives is only a small part of its total application. The objectives of work measurement are to provide a sound basis for: 1) Comparing alternative methods. 2) Assessing the correct initial manning (manpower requirement planning). 3) Planning and control. 4) Realistic costing. 5) Financial incentive schemes. 6) Delivery date of goods. 7) Cost reduction and cost control. 8) Identifying substandard workers. 9) Training new employees.
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169 12.3.2 TECHNIQUES OF WORK MEASUREMENT For the purpose of work measurement, work can be regarded as: 1) Repetitive work: The type of work in which the main operation or group of operations repeat continuously during the time spent at the job. These apply to work cycles of extremely short duration. 2) Non-repetitive work: It includes some type of maintenance and construction work, where the work cycle itself is hardly ever repeated identically. Various techniques of work measurement are: a) Time study (stop watch technique), b) Synthesis, c) Work sampling, d) Predetermined motion and time study, e) Analytical estimating. Time study and work sampling involve direct observation and the remaining are data based and analytical in nature.
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