D whigs and tories were early factions but not

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d. Whigs and Tories were early factions but not distinct political parties. e. Democrats and the Whigs would emerge as rival parties later, but were not the first two parties. Question 8 a. They were not worried that parties would trigger a revolution but they did fear it would trigger disunion and the inability to function on the basis of the greatest common good. b. While it’s true that parties in America were a novelty, this was not the main reason for leaders’ discomfort with them. Previously, groups would organize around an issue and dissolve once it was settled. Parties were enduring and took positions that surpassed any one issue. c. Correct answer. The founding fathers feared that parties would represent an ongoing challenge to the notion of a unified republic, which would ultimately lead to its undoing. d. Many leaders, harkening back to the experiences in Old England and Europe, did consider parties potential seedbeds of corruption, though American leaders’ main concern was their ability to undo the unity needed for the continued success of the republic. e. Leaders did not worry about party politics disrupting government’s ability to do its job, but they did consider their existence a mark of disloyalty to the greater cause of Union. Question 9
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a. This policy was indeed the first of many to state America’s goal of remaining isolated from European conflicts. b. Washington recognized that America would need at least ten years to build up its military and that could only be achieved by staying out of European conflicts. c. Under the Franco-American Alliance of 1778, the U.S. was bound to help France, but Washington’s push for neutrality went against this earlier agreement. d. Correct answer. Federalists supported the British and were pleased by the neutrality statement not to aid the French in this matter; Jeffersonians and other pro-French supporters were outraged by the violation of this agreement. e. Had Americans entered the war on the French side, the British would have blockaded American ships that were bringing much-needed food and other supplies to the French. Indirectly, then, neutrality proved best for French interests. Question 10 a. Southern planters were furious over the treaty, which would have required them to pay the major share of pre-Revolutionary debts to Britain. b. Correct answer. Washington’s enormous, seemingly unshakeable, popularity was reduced by Jay’s widely unpopular treaty. c. Spain feared that this treaty would mean a global alliance between the U.S. and Great Britain, and as such, wanted its own treaty with the U.S. In the 1795 Pinckney’s Treaty, Spain gave the U.S. virtually everything it asked for, including free navigation of the Mississippi River, warehouse rights at New Orleans, and the contested territory of western Florida. d. Mob riots and demonstrations protested the treaty and burned images of Jay in effigy. e. Under the treaty, one of the few concessions Britain made was to pay damages for seizing American ships, but they did not promise not to repeat these seizures in future wars.
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