D distributive justice or the principle of justice in

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Theories of Personality
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Chapter 4 / Exercise 4
Theories of Personality
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d. Distributive justice or the “principle of justice in holdings” / Entitlement Theory (Nozick’s term) i. Distribution of justices/acquired or transferred justly ; Who should hold what goods ii. Nozick’s three main principles: 1. Principle of justice in acquisition (possession) a. How can people justly acquire (obtain) something by nature (that is not held by anyone). someone has justly acquired something from the world if and only if they have not made anyone worse off. b. Someone acquiring a holding in accord with the principle of justice in acquisition is entitled to it. 2. Principle of justice in transfer a. How can people justly transfer something they hold to another person b. Someone has justly transferred something from one person to another if and only if: i. People involved consent to it
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Theories of Personality
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ii. Transaction is done without fraudulence c. Someone acquiring a holding in accord with the principle of justice in transfer, from someone entitled to it, is entitled to it. 3. The rectification (correction or improvement) of injustice in holdings/ Principle of justice in rectification( less discussed prin.) a. If someone violates the principle of justice of transfer and justice in acquisition, how should we redistribute holdings; how to correct an earlier injustice b. If the principle of justice in transfer are violated, then goods should be transferred to the person who held it before the principle was violated c. Someone acquiring a holding in accord with the principle of justice in rectification is entitled to it. 4. Application of this theory: taxation and the state e. Historical vs. end-result (aka time-slice) principles i. Historical theories/principle : The justice of a distribution depends on how it came about 1. Ex: Locke (labor theory, monetary exchange), Nozick ii. End-result (time-slice) theories/principle: The justice of a distribution is determined by how things are distributed, based on structural principles 1. Ex: utilitarianism (maximize welfare) 2. End-result and patterned theories require continuous interference in people's lives iii. A theory of justice in distribution is historical when whether a distribution is just or not depends on how that distribution came about. iv. A theory of justice in distribution is non-historical (consists only of End- Result Principles) when whether a distribution is just or not is determined only by how things are distributed. f. Patterning and Nozick’s argument that “liberty upsets patterns” i. Patterning: A principle of distribution is patterned if it specifies that a distribution is to vary along with some type of pattern (I.Q. / usefulness to society) then it would be considered just ii. Nozick's famous argument that liberty upsets patterns : So Nozick asks us to imagine a world in which all of our friends from behind the veil of ignorance are given whatever equal share you give them in your fair distribution. So each of them ends up with a piggy bank of the appropriate size. But all of them, says Nozick, are basketball fans and they choose to

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