Kidneys are rich with vitamin D receptors and play a major role in turning vitamin D into its active form Why is Vit D important? Your body must have vitamin D to absorb calcium and promote bone growth What are the 2 types of dialysis and what does this procedure do? Hemodialysis A medical procedure to remove fluid and waste products from the blood and to correct electrolyte imbalances. Peritoneal dialysis Know the 3 steps in urine formation (glomerular filtration, reabsorption, secretion,) 1.Glomerular filtration - What is a glomerulus and what is its purpose? The basic filtration unit of the kidney What are the afferent and efferent arterioles – which one had a larger lumen and why is this important? Afferent arterioles is the larger because it carries blood into the glomerulus 9
Afferent arteriole brings blood to the glomerulus and the efferent arteriole takes blood away from the glomerulus 2.Reabsorption – Which way do the substances flow? From the tubular fluid into the blood. Know where it is and that this is the area of the nephron that has the most reabsorption of solutes PCT What type of water reabsorption occurs in the PCT.? Active Transport Why is glucose present in the urine of a person with diabetes mellitus? Too much glucose because of untreated diabetes and the kidneys can not filter it What do the Descending and Ascending Loop of Henle do? Ascending limb drains urine into the distal convoluted tubule. Descending- water is readily reabsorbed from the descending limb by osmosis Are most of the nephrons in the human kidney cortical or juxtamedullary? Cortical What is facultative water reabsorption? Reabsorption of water in the late distal convoluted tubule and. collecting duct under the control of antidiuretic hormone What triggers the Renin- Angiotensin- Aldosterone cascade and what is its result on B/P? BP and it increases it What does aldosterone do and how? Helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body Controls blood pressure and the balance of fluids and electrolytes in the blood Renin normally stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone . What do ACE inhibitors do? An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure What does ADH do? (where is it secreted from? How does it work? Released when osmolarity is high, too much Na+, because of dehydration. It causes retention of water by the kidneys, and it also causes vasoconstriction in the body to bring up blood pressure ADH and Aldosterone work on the DCT and collecting duct to retain water. What does it do to B/P? 10
Lower it What is diabetes insipidus?