C appeal to force argumentum and baculem or threat of

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not the mere fact of authority. (c) Appeal to force (Argumentum and Baculem) or threat of force. This fallacy is said to have been committed when assent is sought on the basis of the use of force or threat of force. It is not might that makes something right or true. Might or the threat of force is irrelevant when it comes to matters of truth or rightness of an action. For example, it would be fallacious if one reasoned that the United States of America war right in 1990 with regard to the Iraq Kuwait despite merely because Iraq was forced into submission. A preacher who argues that salvation is imperative because otherwise one would go to hell commits this fallacy because the threat of hell may compel one to declare salvation without having any objective reasons to justify the choice of salvation. The fear of the eternal suffering in hell would in that case be the reason for adopting salvation not the more reasonable grounds of love, peace, harmony and the general well being of the individual and specify that come as a result of salvation such that avoidance of hell is just an accident. (d) Appeal to ignorance (Argumentum and Ignorantiam) This fallacy is said to occur when it is argued that a certain view, opinion belief or assertion is true just because it has not been proved false, or conversely that it is false because it has not been proved true. This happens when the premises of an argument state that a certain position or view has into been proved (or d isp roved) while the conclusion makes a definite assertion abort the position. This sought of reasoning is treacherous because it apparently seems to follow and actually pretends to follow the justified reasoning that a certain view is true because we have considerable evidence, all of which shows that the view is true, and none of which shows that it is false. Showing that a view is true simply because there is no contrary evidence is not enough. It is imperative also to show positive evidence in favor of it. Otherwise outrageous claims for instance of the existence of mermaids may be 'proved' by this treacherous kind of reasoning which is logically unacceptable. (e) Argument against the person (Argumentum and Hominem)
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The above fallacy is said to have been committed when a rebut to the argument or position held is not directed to the basis, evidence or premis(es) upon which the position rests but rather to the person against whom the rebut is intended. The fallacy may appear in three ways: I Abusive Circumstantial You too (Tu Quoque) Abusive For example arguing that Fredrick Nietzsche was mistaken in his philosophical ideas on existentialism because he was a miserable immoral man who eventually died of syphilis involves committing this fallacy. The correctness or incorrectness' has got nothing to do with his morality. The ideas are correct or incorrect on their own merit.
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