3What this means for pastoralists who practice mobile livestock grazing systems and often have temporary dwellings is that they can be kicked off of any land without compensation in favour of foreign investors. The biggest threat to pastoralism in Tanzania therefore, lies within this piece of legislation. Its enactment and the repeal of the Range Development and Management Act, 1964 and the Rural Lands (planning and Utilization) Act, 1973 pose a great threat to pastoralists’ livelihoods. Tanzania Investment Act, 1997 The latter aspects and the Tanzania Investment Act, 1997, are very detrimental to the existence of pastoralism in Tanzania. The Tanzania Investment act, 1997, allows non-citizens to own land for the purpose of investment. The setting aside of 2.5 million hectares of land for prospective investors under the new land Bank scheme under TIC will take away land already occupied by people such as nomadic pastoralists and other vulnerable communities. This argument is supported by the procedures used by TIC to identify and survey the so-called suitable land for investment. According to HAKIARDHI, and NGO dealing with advocacy on land issues, TIC wrote letters to regional authorities, informing them about the government’s intention to establish a land bank. Village authorities were told to earmark land for the purpose in only seven days. The proposed Range Management act, 2005 The overall aim of the proposed Range Management Act is to increase the productivity of Tanzania’s Rangelands and livestock sector (see box 8 for some of the act’s specific objectives). To meet these objectives the Act proposes to establish a 3Unexhausted improvements refer to improvements on the land which may still be in use.
rangeland Management Council and provide for the development and management of Range Development Areas. The establishment of range Development areas (RDA) is proposed under section 14 of the proposed Act. In order to promote the highest use of “general lands”, the Minister responsible for livestock and rangeland development, after consultation with relevant Ministries, may establish RDAs within the general land and part of the village lands that has been demarcated for livestock use.4Whenever such RDAS are established, the Minister shall grant adjacent landowners, upon application, rights-of-way over the lands for stock-driving purposes to provide access to water, salt-licks and marketing facilities or to lands not within the Range Development areas but owned by the person with stock-grazing rights. Furthermore, the Minister shall provide for the protection, administration, regulation and improvement of the range development areas, adopt regulations and enter into collaboration agreements necessary to accomplish the purposes of the Act, regulate occupancy and use, and provide for orderly improvement and development of the grazing.