processes that explain their levels of disenfranchisement beyond the compara-ble quantitative indicators. Finally, this type of research will provide qualitativeevidence to explain further the dimensions of disenfranchisement and the waysthat they are interrelated, providing opportunities to develop and reªne them.This paper proposes a conceptual framework for understanding factorscontributing to developing countries and civil society actors’ disenfranchise-ment from the multilateral arena. By disaggregating this notion of disenfran-chisement into three speciªc dimensions, we provide a framework for researchinto this extremely important aspect of international politics. Without full in-clusion of those that are disenfranchised, progress toward sustainable develop-ment will be limited. In the Secretary General’s report on the implementation ofthe Millennium Development Goals, he calls on “the entire United Nationsfamily of Member States, international organizations . . . and civil society [to]join together, [for] success requires solidarity.”57Any lesser level of inclusionwill slow our collective progress toward a sustainable future.ReferencesAgarwal, Anil, and Sunita Narain. 1991. Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case ofEnvironmental Colonialism.Earth Island Journal(Spring).Anheier, Helmut, and Nuno Themudo. 2002. Organisational Forms of Global CivilSociety: Implications of Going Global. InGlobal Civil Society 2002,edited byM. Glasius, M. Kaldor and H. Anheier. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Appadurai, Arjun. 2001.Globalization.Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Betsill, Michele M., and Elisabeth Corell. 2001. NGO Inºuence in International Environ-mental Negotiations: A Framework for Analysis.Global Environmental Politics1 (4):65–85.Boli, John, and George M. Thomas. 1999.Constructing World Culture: International Non-governmental Organizations Since 1875.Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Brecher, Jeremy, Tim Costello, and Brendan Smith. 2002.Globalization from Below: ThePower of Solidarity,2ndedition. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.Brown Weiss, Edith. 1995. Environmental Equity: The Imperative for the Twenty-FirstCentury. InSustainable Development and International Law,edited by Winfried Lang.London: Graham & Trotman.Bruhl, Tanja, and Volker Rittberger. 2001. From International To Global Governance:Actors, Collective Decision-Making And The United Nations In The World Of The21st Century. InGlobal Governance and the United Nations System,edited by VolkerRittberger. Tokyo: United Nations University.Bryner, Gary. 1997.From Promises to Performance: Achieving Global Environmental Goals.