Soviet ships sent to cuba are called back and they

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retaliation." Soviet ships sent to Cuba are called back and they agree to remove missiles from Cuba. The US agrees to dismantle missiles in Italy and Turkey and respect Cuban independence. US and Soviets install hotline from DC to Moscow. 6. Détente - "easing of tensions" of US with China & Soviet Union in 1972; increased diplomatic, economic, & cultural contacts to avoid conflict. The Chinese communist government was recognized in 1971. Nixon visits in 1972, then visits Soviet Union and had intense negotiations and increased trade known as the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (1972). This froze arsenals of intercontinental missiles capable of carrying a warhead and banned development of missile interception. "If you attack, we will retaliate."
7. Brown v. Board of Education May 17, 1954 Topeka, KS Linda Brown rode bus to segregated school and parents sue w/ lawyer Thurgood Marshall of NAACP. Supreme Court rejects Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) since segregation violates the Due Process Clause of 14thamendment. Unanimous decision w/ Chief Justice Earl Warren that segregated schools were not equal and gave feeling of inferiority. Ordered states to desegregate "with all deliberate speed." 8. Little Rock Nine 1957 @ Central High in Little Rock, AR planned to desegregate slowly since 85% of Arkansans opposed integration. White segregationists prevent 9 AA model students from entering the school. Gov. Orval Farbus on Sep. 4thordered Arkansas National Guard to keep students out to defy national mandate. On Sep. 24thEisenhower ordered 101stAirborne Division of US Army to federalize Arkansas National Guard. 8/9 student finish the year. Farbus closed school for 1958. In '59, 1 AA attended. '60 5 attends. '61 8 attends. 9. Montgomery Bus Boycott Economic boycotts & mass demonstrations. Rosa Parks refused to give up seat and is arrested in Montgomery, AL on 12/1/55. 35k handbills distributed on trial urging 1-day bus boycott which lasts 12/5/55 to 12/20/56. Demanded courteous treatments, 1stcome 1stserve seating, and AA drivers hired (refused). Montgomery Improvement Association w/ twice a week meetings and carpools. Nov. '56 Supreme Court ruled that segregated buses unconstitutional. Jan. '57 4 churches and homes bombed 7 KKK members arrested. 10. Birmingham Campaign April May '63 most segregated city in nation pop 350k 60% white 40% black (none public service employees). Unemployment of black was 2.5x of whites & average income was less than half. SCLC & King carefully coordinate protests boycott open enrollment of all races &

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