Consequently, women and their dependents remain the most economically vulnerable group in LDC.
Any process of growth that fails to improve the welfare of the people experiencing the greatest hardship, broadly recognised to be women and children, has failed to accomplish one of the principals’ goals of development. In the long run, the low status of women is likely to translate into slower rates of economic growth. Ethnic Minorities and Poverty:- A final generalization about the incidence of poverty in the developing world is that it falls heavily on minority ethnic groups and indigenous populations. In recent years, domestic conflicts and even civil wars have arisen out of ethnic groups` perceptions that they are losing out in the competition for limited resources and job opportunities the poverty problem is even more serious for indigenous peoples, whose numbers exceed 300 million in over 5,000 different groups in more than 70 countries. In Latin America results have shown that most indigenous groups live in extreme poverty and that being indigenous greatly increases the chances that an individual will be malnourished, illiterate, in poor health and unemployed same research could also be applicable to Africa and Asia regions with high rates of poverty. It should be noted that the poor come from poor countries. Although this may seem like a trivial observation, it is actually a useful note of optimism. The negative relationship between poverty and per capita income suggest that if higher incomes can be achieved, poverty will be reduced, if only because of the great resources that countries will have available to tackle poverty problems. Unfortunately, a higher level of absolute poverty can also retard a country`s growth prospects. Macroeconomic Goals The three important Macroeconomic goals are, stable prices, High sustainable growth and Low unemployment. These three goals can be achieved through Monetary and Fiscal policies. Monetary Policy is the process used a monetary authority (government or central bank) to control the supply, availability and the cost of money in the economy. Monetary policy can either be expansionary or contractionary Expansionary increases whilst contractionary monetary policy reduces the quantity of money in the economy. A substantial change in money supply would either increase or decrease interest rate which would either decrease or increase aggregate demand (ΔMS=↑↓i=↓↑AD) which has an effect on the three macroeconomic goals. Fiscal policy is the use of government expenditure and revenue collection to influence the economy. The two main instruments of fiscal policy are Government expenditure and Taxation. Neutral stance of fiscal policy implies a balanced budget where G=T (Government spending = Tax revenue). Government spending is fully funded by tax revenue and overall the budget outcome has a neutral effect on the level of economic activity. Expansionary fiscal policy involves a net increase in government
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