31 how does increasing the solute concentration

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31. How does increasing the solute concentration affect the solute potential? 32. What is homeostasis? Why must an organism be in homeostasis? How does an organism maintain homeostasis? 33. Cells of terrestrial animals are still surrounded by fluids. What is this fluid environment? What role does it play in homeostasis? 34. Why are moving materials through diffusion alone a problem for multicellular organisms? How do multicellular organisms overcome the limits of diffusion when it comes to distributing nutrients and eliminating wastes? 35. Organisms that live in fresh water are almost always hypertonic to their environment. Why is this a serious environmental pressure for the animal to contend with? How do some organisms cope with this problem?
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AP BIOLOGY 3 36. What processes produce ammonia? Why do humans convert ammonia into urea? How and where does this take place? 37. Describe the strategies of aquatic, terrestrial, and terrestrial egg layers use when it comes to eliminating ammonia. 38. Compare the excretory systems of a flatworm, a earthworm, an insect and a vertebrate. 39. Describe how the liver along with the circulatory and excretory systems work together to eliminate metabolic (nitrogen) wastes in mammals. 40. Name the hormones that help regulate blood osmolarity and blood volume and describe they help maintain homeostasis. Past Free Response Questions 1959 The blood, lymph, and other internal fluids have often been referred to as the "internal environment" of the cells. Many parts of the body are involved in maintaining the constancy of this internal environment. Discuss how 1) the kidneys, and 2) the endocrine glands help to maintain the constancy of the internal environment. 1967 Nitrogenous waste products are excreted by animals in various forms. Many aquatic animals excrete ammonia, birds and reptiles excrete uric acid, and man excretes urea. Describe the formation of two of these waste products and discuss the adaptive value of these three methods of nitrogenous excretion. 1981 Describe the structure and function of the mammalian kidney. Include a discussion of the regulation of water balance by kidney and hormonal interaction. 1983: Describe the fluid-mosaic model of a plasma membrane. Discuss the role of the membrane in the movement of materials through by each of the following processes. a. Active Transport b. Passive Transport 1984: Describe the structure of a generalized eukaryotic plant cell. Indicate the ways in which a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell would differ in structure from this generalized eukaryotic plant cell. 1992: A laboratory assistant prepared solutions of 0.8 M, 0.6 M, 0.4 M, and 0.2 M sucrose, but forgot to label them. After realizing the error, the assistant randomly labeled the flasks containing these four unknown solutions as flask A, flask B, flask C, and flask D. Design an experiment, based on the principles of diffusion and osmosis, that the assistant could use to determine which of the flasks contains each of the four unknown solutions. Include in your answer (a) a description of how you would set up and perform the experiment; (b) the results you would expect from your experiment; and (c) an explanation of those results based on the principles involved. (Be sure to clearly state the principles addressed in
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