food or social approval Edward Chace TolmanUsed behaviour to infer mental processesCognitive MapA conception within the rat's mind of the maze's layout Tolman created mazes with food in certain arms, and found that upon the rat's first experience, they simply explore the map, then they are later able to find the food no matter which arm they are initially placed inB.F. Skinner's Verbal BehaviourSkinner argued that kids learn language through operant conditioningfind more resources at oneclass.comfind more resources at oneclass.com
Children imitate speech that they hear, & repeat correct speech because it is rewardedNoam ChomskyPointed out that kids say many sentences that have never been rewarded by parents (ex. "I hate you, Mommy")They go through a stage in which they use incorrect grammar (ex. "The boy hitted the ball")He saw language dev't as being determined not by imitation or reinforcement but by an inborn biological program that holds across culturesLanguage is a product of the way the mind is constructed, not a result of reinforcementIt is necessary not only to measure observable behaviour but also to consider what this behaviour tells us about how the mind worksCognitive Revolution (1950s)A shift in psychology from the behaviour's stimulus-response relationships to an approach whose main thrust was to understand the operation of the mind Flow Diagrams for ComputersPsychologists were interested in how computers processes info in stagesInput →Input processor →Memory unit →Arithmetic unit →OutputInformation-processing approachAn approach that traces sequences of mental operations involved in cognition The operation of the mind can be described as occurring in a number of stagesFlow Diagrams for the MindWhat happens in a person's mind when directing attention to one stimulus in the environment?They can hear the sounds of the unattended message but are unaware of the contents of that message"Input" is the sounds of both the attended & unattended messages; "filter" lets through the attended message & filters out the unattended message; "detector" records the info that gets through the filterInput ⇉Filter →Detector →To memory John McCarthy's Artificial
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