the quartet orchestrating the second american revolution 1783 1789.pdf

Debates in virginia and new york but chiefly and

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debates in Virginia and New York, but chiefly, and ironically, as a target that focused the fire of the opponents to ratification. 33. GW to AH, 28 August 1788, PWCS 6:480–81. 34. MP 10:263–70, 477. 35. Warren Hope, ed., The Letters of Centinel (Ardmore, Pa., 1998), 69–70. 36. GW to Thomas Johnson, 20 April 1788, and GW to James McHenry, 27 April 1788, PWCS 6:217–18, 235–36. Washington concluded that Maryland’s ratification, followed shortly thereafter by South Carolina’s, “created a moral certainty of adoption…which will make all except desperate men look before they leap into the dark consequences of rejection.” As the Virginia convention gathered in Richmond, he was confident that “Virginia will make the ninth column in the federal Temple.” GW to JM, 8 June 1788, and GW to Jonathan Trumbull, Jr., 12 June 1788, PWCS 6:321, 325. 37. JM to GW, 13 and 18 June 1788, PWCS 6:329, 339.
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38. Marshall quoted in Jean Edward Smith, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation (New York, 1996), 118. 39. JM to GW, 18 March 1786, PWCS 5:94–95. On Henry as an orator, see Henry Mayer, Son of Thunder: Patrick Henry and the American Republic (New York, 1986). 40. TJ to JM, 8 December 1784, RL 1:353–54. 41. Smith, John Marshall , 123. 42. DHRC 9:952–53. 43. DHRC 9:959–61. 44. DHRC 9:1028–31. 45. DHRC 9:995–96. 46. DHRC 9:951. 47. DHRC 9:959. 48. DHRC 9:995–96. 49. DHRC 9:1506–15. Madison predicted that Henry would do anything in his power to throw sand into the gears of the new federal government, arguing that Virginia’s representative “will commit suicide on his own authority.” One of Henry’s first acts was to block Madison’s election to the Senate. 50. See Maier, Ratification , 345–400, for the best synthesis of the twists and turns at the New York convention. See also Linda Grant DePauw, The Eleventh Pillar: New York State and the Federal Constitution (Ithaca, N.Y., 1966). Governor Clinton and his followers made a point of rejecting the view that Virginia’s ratification left New York with no realistic options. The new Constitution was going into effect, however, and as an editorial in the New York Packet put it, “Now, those who vote against the New Constitution vote themselves out of the New Federal Union.” New York Packet , 15 July 1788. 51. “An Address to the People of New York on the Subject of the Constitution,” 12 April 1788, JP 3. On Jay’s diplomatic style of debate, see Maier, Ratification , 399. 52. Editorial Note, Jay at the New York Ratifying Convention, JP 3. 53. JM to GW, 21 July 1788, PWCS 6:392–93; JM to AH, 20 July 1788, HP 5:184–85. 54. The circular letter is in DHRC 23:236. 55. GW to JM, 23 September 1788, MP 11:262; GW to JM, 11 August 1788, PWCS 6:437–39. 56. JJ to GW, 21 September 1788, PWCS 6:527–28. 57. GW to Willliam Tudor, 22 August 1788, and GW to John Armstrong, 25 April 1788, PWCS 465, 226. CHAPTER 7: FINALPIECES 1. Pauline Maier, Ratification: The People Debate the Constitution, 1787–88 (New York, 2010), 421– 32, for the best synthesis of the post-ratification efforts by the opposition in Virginia and New York.
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