Bellious offspring and for eight years refused to

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bellious offspring and for eight years refused to send a minister to America’s “backwoods” capital. London suggested, with barbed irony, that if it sent one, it would have to send thirteen. Britain fl atly declined to make a commercial treaty or to repeal its ancient Navigation Laws. Lord Sheffield, whose ungenerous views prevailed, argued persua- sively in a widely sold pamphlet that Britain would win back America’s trade anyhow. Commerce, he insisted, would naturally follow old channels. So why go to the Americans hat in hand? The British also officially closed their profitable West Indies trade to the United States, though the Yankees, with their time-tested skill in smuggling, illegally partook nonetheless. Scheming British agents were also active along the far-flung northern frontier. They intrigued with the disgruntled Allen brothers of Vermont and sought to annex that rebellious area to Britain. Along the north- ern border, the redcoats continued to hold a chain of trading posts on U.S. soil, and there they maintained their fur trade with the Indians. One plausible excuse for remaining was the failure of the American states to honor the treaty of peace in regard to debts and Loyal- ists. But the main purpose of Britain in hanging on was probably to curry favor with the Indians and keep their tomahawks lined up on the side of the king as a barrier against future American attacks on Canada. All these grievances against Britain were madden- ing to patriotic Americans. Some citizens demanded, with more heat than wisdom, that the United States force the British into line by imposing restrictions on their imports to America. But Congress could not control commerce, and the states refused to adopt a uniform tariff policy. Some “easy states” deliberately lowered their tariffs in order to attract an unfair share of trade. O h i o R . M i s s i s s i p p i R . L a k e E r i e L a k e H u r o n L a k e M i c h i g a n L a k e S u p e r i o r VIRGINIA N.C. TENNESSEE KENTUCKY PA. SPANISH LOUISIANA BRITISH NORTH AMERICA (CANADA) Boundaries indefinite 80°W 90°W 40°N 50°N 0 0 100 200 Mi. 100 200 Km. N Northwest Territory Present state boundary PA P PENNSYLVANIA VIRGINIA Marietta O h i o R . The Seven Ranges—first area surveyed 0 0 18 36 Mi. 18 36 Km. ANIA A 6 Miles A Township 6 7 18 19 30 31 5 8 17 20 29 32 4 9 16 21 28 33 3 10 15 22 27 34 2 11 14 23 26 35 1 12 13 24 25 36 Section 16 reserved for school funds Half section 320 acres Half-quarter section 80 acres Quarter section 160 acres Quarter quarter section 40 acres 1 Mile 640 Acres Map 9.2 Surveying the Old Northwest under the Land Ordinance of 1785 Sections of a township under the Land Ordinance of 1785. Interactive Map
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184 Chapter 9 The Confederation and the Constitution, 1776–1790 Spain, though recently an enemy of Britain, was openly unfriendly to the new Republic. It controlled the mouth of the all-important Mississippi, down which the pioneers of Tennessee and Kentucky were forced to float their produce. In 1784 Spain closed the river to American commerce, threatening the West with strangulation. Spain likewise claimed a large area
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