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power with their rivals, the Tories. The Whigs' origin lay in constitutional monarchism and opposition to absolute monarchy.2.The Inclosure Acts (or "Enclosure Acts" in modern spelling) was a series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.b.Enlightenment: reason and the betterment of humanity1.a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition. It was heavily influenced by 17th-century philosophers such asDescartes, Locke, and Newton, and its prominent exponents include Kant, Goethe, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Adam Smith.b.Montesquieu1.A Frenchlawyer, man of letters, and political philosopherwho lived during the Age of Enlightenment. He is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutionsthroughout the world. He is also known for doing more than any other author to secure the place of the word despotismin the political lexiconb.Diderot1.Denis Diderot ( 5 October 1713 – 31 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent figure during the Enlightenmentand is best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédiealong with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.b.Peter the Great and Westernization1.Imitation, people say, is the sincerest form of flattery. Think about it - when a TV show or YouTube video is wildly successful, the market usually becomes awash with imitators for a few months after their initial fame. While it was certainly more complicated than a video making a million hits on YouTube, Peter the Great's westernization projects in Russia in the late 17th and early 18th centuries were in part an imitation of Peter the Great's favorite international region: Western Europe.b.Committee of Public Safety- origins1.The Committee of Public Safety (French: Comité de salut public), created in April 1793 by the National Convention and then restructured in July 1793, formed the de facto executive government in France during the Reign of Terror (1793–94), a stage of the French Revolution.b.Napoleon1.Napoléon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.b.Legacy of the French RevolutionThe legacy of the French Revolution