oLake was indispensable for carrying their supplies.Arnold assembled and fitted every vessel and won the Americans a lot of time.British forced to retreated to Canada in the winter and General Burgoyne had tostart again next year.Without Arnold, the British would have captured Fort Ticonderoga.Burgoyne made slow progress with seven thousand men who had to movethrough the forests while the American militia was waiting for them.General Howe, instead of going up the Hudson to help, went with the main armyfor an attack on Philadelphia.c)ConfrontationWashington transferred army to Philadelphia.oDefeated in two battles in 1777 at Brandywine Creek and Germantown.oHowe captured by Philadelphia because of the lively capital.oWashington retired to Valley Forge in the winter.Army whipped into shape by Baron von Steuban.Burgoyne began to move down to Albany and was swarmed by the militiamen.Americans also drove back St. Leger’s force at Oriskany.Burgoyne surrendered entire command at Saratoga on October 17, 1777 togeneral Horatio GatesoAmong one of the most decisive battles of both American and worldhistory. Revived the faltering colonial cause. Made possible the urgentlyneeded foreign aid from France.L.Revolution in Diplomacy?a)France with the ColonistsFrance was out for revenge against the British.oWanted to regain power and prestige after the loss in the Seven Years’War.oStage set for diplomatic alliance with France against Britain.b)American Revolutionary PoliticsThe Americans wanted an end to colonialism and mercantilism.Strongly supported free trade and freedom of the seas.Hoped to substitute the rule of law for the ancient reliance on raw power toarbitrate the affairs of nations.Continental Congress drafted a “Model Treaty” to guide the Americancommissioners in the summer of 1776.oNo Political Connection , No Military Connection, Only CommercialConnectionBelieved that military conflict would be abandoned and the bonds of mutualcommercial interest would guarantee peaceful relations among states.c)Benjamin FranklinBelieved that he would bring the diplomatic revolution in Paris that theAmericans had hoped to achieve.
Adored by the Parisians for his new democratic social order.After defeat at Saratoga in 1777, the British Parliament passed a measure thatoffered the Americans home rule.February 6, 1778: Americans began a military alliance with France to help thePatriot cause. American War then becomes a World WarM.The Colonial War Becomes a Wider Wara)Many Countries Become Involved in the WarSpain and Holland enters against Britain in 1779.oSpanish and French ships outnumber Britain.Neutrals in Europe begin to demand more rights from Britain.