O lake was indispensable for carrying their supplies

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o Lake was indispensable for carrying their supplies. Arnold assembled and fitted every vessel and won the Americans a lot of time. British forced to retreated to Canada in the winter and General Burgoyne had to start again next year. Without Arnold, the British would have captured Fort Ticonderoga. Burgoyne made slow progress with seven thousand men who had to move through the forests while the American militia was waiting for them. General Howe, instead of going up the Hudson to help, went with the main army for an attack on Philadelphia. c) Confrontation Washington transferred army to Philadelphia. o Defeated in two battles in 1777 at Brandywine Creek and Germantown. o Howe captured by Philadelphia because of the lively capital. o Washington retired to Valley Forge in the winter. Army whipped into shape by Baron von Steuban. Burgoyne began to move down to Albany and was swarmed by the militiamen. Americans also drove back St. Leger’s force at Oriskany. Burgoyne surrendered entire command at Saratoga on October 17, 1777 to general Horatio Gates o Among one of the most decisive battles of both American and world history. Revived the faltering colonial cause. Made possible the urgently needed foreign aid from France. L. Revolution in Diplomacy? a) France with the Colonists France was out for revenge against the British. o Wanted to regain power and prestige after the loss in the Seven Years’ War. o Stage set for diplomatic alliance with France against Britain. b) American Revolutionary Politics The Americans wanted an end to colonialism and mercantilism. Strongly supported free trade and freedom of the seas. Hoped to substitute the rule of law for the ancient reliance on raw power to arbitrate the affairs of nations. Continental Congress drafted a “Model Treaty” to guide the American commissioners in the summer of 1776. o No Political Connection , No Military Connection, Only Commercial Connection Believed that military conflict would be abandoned and the bonds of mutual commercial interest would guarantee peaceful relations among states. c) Benjamin Franklin Believed that he would bring the diplomatic revolution in Paris that the Americans had hoped to achieve.
Adored by the Parisians for his new democratic social order. After defeat at Saratoga in 1777, the British Parliament passed a measure that offered the Americans home rule. February 6, 1778: Americans began a military alliance with France to help the Patriot cause. American War then becomes a World War M. The Colonial War Becomes a Wider War a) Many Countries Become Involved in the War Spain and Holland enters against Britain in 1779. o Spanish and French ships outnumber Britain. Neutrals in Europe begin to demand more rights from Britain.

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