Adjust respiration (ways for us to exchange gasses) Ventilation perfusion couple Secondary role Vasomotor o Increases perfusion o Medullary ischemic reflex Autonomic response to drop in brain perfusion Cardiac and Vasomotor Centers o Increase HR and contraction o Widespread vasoconstriction Input from higher brain center o Stress, arousal, anger Capillary Exchange Two way movement of materials and fluids o Delivery Blood capillary interstitial space tissue Oxygen, Glucose, AA, lipids, minerals, hormones Velocity slows blood to allow exchange o Removal Tissue interstitial space capillary blood CO2, ammonia, other wastes Bulk Flow Balance of filtration and osmotic forces o Filtration at arterial end of capillary o Reabsorption at venous end of capillary o Fluid from interstitial space to capillary 2 forces o Hydrostatic o Osmotic o Net Filtration Pressure (NFP) Exchange-Related Pressures Exchange of things from the capillary o In or Out—of capillary
Hydrostatic Pressures o Blood (BHP) -- OUT o Interstitial Fluid (IHP) -- IN Colloid Osmotic Pressures o Blood (BCOP) – IN Tonicity o Interstitial Fluid (ICOP) – OUT Pressures Hydrostatic Pressure o Blood (BHP) [Blood Pressure]: PUSHES out of capillary o Interstitial Fluid (IHP): PUSHES into capillary Colloid Osmotic Pressure o Blood (BCOP): PULLS into capillary o Interstitial Pressure (ICOP): PULLS out of capillary CHAPTER 21 Lymphatic System Collection of tissues/organs that produce immune cells Functions o Fluid recovery o Immunity o Lipid absorption Components Lymphatic tissue Lymphatic organs Lymphatic vessels o Lymph o Clear fluid o Similar to blood plasma Lymphatic capillaries Lymph Capillaries Absorb interstitial fluid Associated with blood capillaries o Highly permeable ECs Anchored by filaments Specialized capillaries o Lacteals Absorb/transport dietary lipids Lymphatic Vessels Collecting vessels Similar to veins o Thinner walls o Move valves (moves backwards, no smooth muscle, moves slow because it relies on the filtration force to push it)
Lymphatic Trunks Drains major portion of body Named for location o Lumbar o Intestinal o Intercostal o Brachiomediastinal o Subclavian o Jugular Collecting Ducts Large structures in thoracic region o Right Lymphatic To right subclavian o Left Lymphatic Thoracic To left subclavian Flow of Lymph Slow speed under low pressure o Aid by valves Flow promoted by o Skeletal muscles o Smooth muscle contraction o Breathing o Pulsing of arteries Lymphatic Cells Natural killer cells T Lymphocytes B Lymphocytes Macrophages Dendritic Cells Reticular Cells Lymphatic Tissue Aggregation of lymphocytes in CT o Diffuse lymphatic tissue o Lymphatic nodules (follicles) Dense lymphocytes and macrophages Lymph nodes Tonsils Appendix Peyer’s patches Lymphatic Organs
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- Fall '19