The western roman empire in 476 ce and weakened the

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the Western Roman Empire in 476 C.E., and weakened the Byzantine Empire through constants attacks. The Silk Road also helped spread many technologies such as gun powder, Greek fire, and Catapults from the Song Dynasty of China. This helped modernize many civilizations, changing the way of combat more like the way it seems today. Although these things greatly affected the way the Silk Road changed, many other things such as the invasion of the Mongols over Song China debased the amount of trade received from China during the 1000's. Without question, one can see that the Silk Road from 200 B.C.E., was not the same of that of 1450 C.E. Things which developed overtime such as new technologies and innovations as well as new trading communities and kingdoms helped to change the Silk Road overall for the better. 2. Continuities: Americas traded gold and spices Europe for centuries.
Changes: New trade became the slave trade that brought new ideas to the Americas. The Portuguese influenced this the most. 3.1914-mention the Ottoman Empire-who turks (muslims) ruling over Arabs(mainly muslims)-by 1918/9. O.E lost control in the area because they fought with Germany against the French and British. Instead of the promised independence, most countries were divided between French and British based on Sykes-Picot Agreement. Mention creation of Israel in 1948-then Arab-Israeli wars eg 1948, 1956 (Suez), 1967, Yom Kippur in 1970s then infidata (?) Main part of your essay is probably based on post-colnial identies and the role of Zionism and Arab Nationalism. ( MIDDLE EAST) 4. This slow decline occurred over an estimated period of 320 years which many historians believe finally culminated on September 4, 476 when Romulus Augustus , the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire was deposed by Odoacer , a Germanic chieftain. To an extent any such date must be arbitrary; Julius Nepos , the legitimate emperor recognized by the East Roman Empire continued to live in Salona , Dalmatia until he was assassinated in 480. Some modern historians question the relevance of this date, [4] as the Ostrogoths who succeeded considered themselves as upholders of the direct line of Roman traditions, and note, as Gibbon did, that the Eastern Roman Empire was going from strength to strength and continued until the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453. Some other notable dates are the Battle of Adrianople in 378, the death of Theodosius I in 395 (the last time the Roman Empire was politically unified), the crossing of the Rhine in 406 by Germanic tribes after the withdrawal of the troops in order to defend Italy against Alaric I (such invasions had occurred many times previously but this time it was successful), the death of Stilicho in 408, followed by the disintegration of the western army, the Sack of Rome (410) , the first time in almost 800 years that the city of Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy, the death of Justinian I , the last Roman Emperor who tried to reconquer the west, in 565, and the coming of Islam after 632. Many scholars maintain that rather than a "fall", the changes can more accurately be described as a complex transformation. [5]

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