Answer rhizoids 82 the sister groups to the fungi are

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Answer: rhizoids 82. The sister groups to the fungi are the and the _______. Answer: choanoflagellates; animals 83. Fungi are heterotrophic organisms with absorptive nutrition that contain _______ in their cell walls. Answer: chitin 84. There are two types of parasitic fungi: parasitic fungi grow parasitically but can also grow independently, whereas _______ parasitic fungi grow only on their specific hosts. Answer: facultative; obligate 85. After a parasitic fungus invades leaf tissue, the hyphae form branching projections called _______ , which push into the living plant cells and absorb their nutrients. Answer: haustoria 86. Organisms living in mutually beneficial symbiosis with other organisms are called _______ . Answer: mutualists
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87. Lichens can reproduce by fragmenting the or by means of specialized structures called _______. Answer: thallus; soredia 88. The and _______ are two major groups of fungi that are not monophyletic, but rather have several distinct lineages. Answer: chytrids; zygospore fungi (or Zygomycota) 89. Sexual reproduction in fungi occurs between genetically distinct _______ . Answer: mating types 90. Sexual reproduction in fungi is accomplished when two different mating types _______ . Answer: fuse 91. Fungi often have a _______ life stage in which a hypha has two haploid nuclei (1 n + 1 n ). Answer: dikaryotic 92. Microsporia penetrate their host cell using a _______ , through which they inject the contents of the spore. Answer: polar tube 93. The fungi of the most basal clade, the _______ , were formerly classified as protists. Answer: chytrids 94. Highly reduced parasitic fungi are likely to belong to the _______ group. Answer: Microsporidia 95. The fungal group that associates with plant roots to form arbuscular mycorrhizae is the _______ . Answer: Glomeromycota 96. The strong flavors of Camembert and Roquefort cheeses come from the digestion of milk by green molds in the genus, which is part of the _______ fungi group.
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Answer: Penicillium; Ascomycota 97. The scientific term for the “mushroom” part of a club fungus is _______ . Answer: basidioma 98. Fungi and lichens are good biological _______ due to their extreme sensitivity to environmental pollutants. Answer: indicators 99. Illustrate the differences between septate and coenocytic hyphae. Make sure to include the following labels where appropriate: cell wall, nuclei, septa, pores. HTML Editor Answer: 100. Refer to the diagram below showing a cross section of foliose lichen. Briefly describe what process is being illustrated in the image.
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HTML Editor Answer: The lichen is releasing soredia, which are a few photosynthetic cells surrounded by a few hyphae. The soredia travel in air currents and colonize new habitats. 101. Refer to the image below of an aquatic chytrid. What is unique about this fungal life cycle?
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Answer: It features alternation of generations. 102. Refer to the image below of an aquatic chytrid. Identify the tail-like structures on the gametes and zoospores, and explain their significance. Answer: Flagella; chytrids are the only fungi that have flagella at any stage of their life cycle. 103. Refer to the diagram below, showing the life cycle of an Ascomycota fungus.
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What is the technical name of the fruiting structure of this type of fungus? Identify its label.
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