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saturated. Vegetable oils and animal fat consist of triglycerides. Triglycerides are important in humans for many reasons, one being used to store unused calories.Lauric acid, composed of three fatty acids, is found in coconut oil and palm kernel oil The experiment began with a triglyceride in common vegetable oil. The three ester bonds in the triglyceride were broken in a process called saponification. An ester decomposes when exposed to heat. A carboxylic acid and alcohol are formed when an ester is bond is broken. When basic conditionsare present, the negative charge on the oxygen is attracted to positively charged ions, like sodium,and a carboxylate salt is produced. Natural fat sources, like vegetable oil, contain many different fatty acids concluding that soap formed contains many different carboxylate salts. An examination of carboxylate salts, such as sodium laurate, gives an explanation to why soap is an efficient cleaning supply. Since the carboxylic salts contain a water soluble ionic portion and a
hydrophobic portion, they act as emulsifiers. This allows materials originally insoluble in water tobe soluble in water. Examining the ability of mineral oil to dissolve in water when soap is present tested this principle. Hard water contains Group II metal cations. The metal cations cause the carboxylate salts of fatty acids to lose their effectiveness as emulsifiers because examples like calcium or magnesium carboxylate salts precipitate out of solution. Transition and post-transition metal cations, like Fe+3, are acidic. Acidic water converts the carboxylate salts to the fatty acids, which are insoluble. Experimental:The protocol for the experiment entitled “Oxygen Containing Compounds: Alcohols, Phenols, Aldehydes, and Ketones” was followed from the Chem 102 Laboratory manual (Leurson, Theresa. CHE 102L Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry II. New York: Freeman Custom Publishing, 43-50.) and carbon copies of this procedure are attached to the back of this lab report.